Tag Archives: Cryptocurrency

THE INCENTIVIZED LOAN PROGRAM ILP is a powerful way to spread wealth

THE INCENTIVIZED LOAN PROGRAM (ILP) is a powerful way to spread wealth. (Updated)

Given the ever-increasing Markethive membership, I’ve updated and republished this article from three years ago for all our newer members. Markethive’s Incentivized Loan Program (ILP), also known as an Initial Loan Procurement, is a valuable tool for distributing wealth. The ILP is essentially a loan that adheres to regulatory standards and complies with the UCC Code. This ensures it can be used in various countries without worrying about fraud or money laundering issues. It's similar to a convertible note, a type of short-term debt financing used for early-stage capital raises. In simple terms, it's like a promissory note or an IOU.

Markethive has developed a revolutionary approach to financing projects through the blockchain, offering an alternative to traditional crowdfunding methods. By leveraging the power of decentralized networks, Markethive's Incentivized Loan Program enables the raising of funds securely and transparently, making it a game-changer for entrepreneurs and innovators. As a pioneer in this space, Markethive is leading the way in decentralized debt crowdfunding, providing a new avenue for businesses to access the capital they need to thrive.

ILP holders have a share in the company's success and receive a portion of the profits in the form of interest, which is 20% of the net revenue paid out monthly, and a final balloon payment at the end of the 20-year note period.

Here is a bullet point breakdown

• The Incentivized Loan Program generates a formally binding and lawful loan arrangement that adheres to the USA UCC code for debt instruments. Since it's a debt instrument, it's exempt from taxation.

• The opportunity is accessible to people globally since lending practices are prevalent in most regions.

• The company can focus on developing tokens with genuine utility and value rather than issuing speculative tokens without practical application.

• Markethive utilizes the debt structure to bring in operational capital, and as a result, ILP holders receive a secure, transferable blockchain token. The total number of ILPs available is capped at 1000, although we are targeted to distribute fewer than that. Each share is equivalent to a single full ILP. 

• Markethive's diverse revenue streams will provide the necessary funds for interest payments, distributed through the ILP utilizing blockchain technology and paid out in Hivecoin (HVC) via the recently integrated comprehensive financial hub called the Markethive Wallet. This cryptocurrency can then be exchanged for other cryptos or fiat currencies through various coin exchanges and, ultimately, through Markethive's crypto exchange platform.

• For as long as the principal remains outstanding, 20% of the net revenue is distributed to all ILP token holders in proportion to their share as interest payments. Following this, a lump sum payment is made after 20 years and can be further extended upon agreement between parties.

• The interest payments will be paid using the ILP Blockchain, which ensures their security, efficiency, and accuracy. The blockchain technology behind it makes tampering impossible.

• Holders of ILP tokens will be able to sell their tokens through Markethive's decentralized, peer-to-peer auction-style exchange, allowing them to dictate the terms of their own exit strategy.

• ILPs can be divided into smaller parts, known as fractions, with a minimum denomination of 1/1000th of an ILP. A specialized internal exchange, the ILP Markethive Exchange, is being developed where members can purchase and sell their ILPs or fractions of their ILPs peer-to-peer. This allows members to monetize their ILPs, turning them into cash cows.

• The ILP token is not based on speculation. It’s based on performance. 

Imminent Growth – Lucrative Outcome

Due to consistent growth indicators from both internal and external sources, ongoing enhancements, and the implementation of integrations that enhance user experience and strengthen our systems' security, we are optimistic about the rapid expansion of our community. Currently, members who upgrade to Entrepreneur One (E1) for $100 monthly are supporting Markethive's efforts to design, build, and implement innovative systems and integrations, and they will be rewarded a thousandfold.

The revenue generated by diverse sources, including the Premium Upgrade (PUP), retail products and services, and the pioneering E1 upgrade, will fund the monthly ILP interest payments. To simplify the calculation and for the sake of this article, let's assume a modest estimate of 5 million members. This allows us to project the following growth…

If 10% of Markethive's 5 million members upgrade to a Loyalty Program at $100 per month, the monthly income would be $5 million. With a 20% net revenue, that's approximately $10 million monthly. When divided by the maximum number of 1000 ILP shares, it translates to a monthly income of $10,000 for each share.  For the holders of 1/10th of an ILP, that represents a cool $1000 per month for a subscription payment of $100 per month. 

As the company grows, the revenue will reflect that growth for a projected duration of 20 years before the loan becomes due, which is regarded as a balloon payment. Currently, one full ILP is worth $10,000, but as the ILP purchases increase or are allocated through the Entrepreneur One Upgrade, the value of the ILP will continue to grow along with the monthly interest payments. 

LinkedIn Statistics 

Source: Kinsta.com

LinkedIn is considered one of the closest, most targeted, and most socially networked competitors to Markethive, even though it falls short in services compared with Markethive. LinkedIn’s most recent figures suggest it has more than 900 million members with over 58 million registered companies. According to Kinsta.com, in September 2023, LinkedIn’s annual revenue was $13.8 billion, reporting that 39% of LinkedIn users had upgraded to their Premium service. LinkedIn’s yearly revenue surpassed $15 billion in Q4 2023, reflecting 1 billion members, according to LinkedIn statistics

Source: Kinsta.com

Based on LinkedIn’s figures and annual revenue of $15 billion, 20% is $3 billion, and the monthly figure would equate to $250 million. At Markethive, that 20% would go to the ILP holders. Based on the maximum total of 1000 ILPs, that correlates to a monthly income of $250,000 per ILP. 

LinkedIn’s 4-tier Premium plans offer nothing more than greater and deeper access to the data of other members, visitors, searches, and 3+ levels of deep messaging. Their services and, subsequently, annual revenue pale in comparison to what Markethive offers now, not to mention the retail products, services, and integrations in development and imminent release; you can just imagine a potential revenue of 10X that amount, and that is arguably a very conservation projection.  

Markethive is determined to distribute its profits to the Markethive community instead of exclusive stakeholders and Microsoft, who acquired LinkedIn for $26 billion in 2016. In response to the changing global economic conditions, Markethive is actively working towards implementing a business model that prioritizes the community. This model allows individuals without significant financial resources to pursue entrepreneurship and access wealth-building opportunities typically available only to prominent venture capitalists.

There’s Always Ways To Earn in Markethive

At Markethive, we are dedicated to ensuring that our rank-and-file members have seamless access to ILPs, as we firmly believe in making Markethive a company for all. To further enhance the benefits of being a part of our community, we have the Markethive Token (MHV) paid to members for daily activities via micropayments recorded in the Coin Clip. These features provide our members with long-term wealth and revenue opportunities and create a thriving ecosystem where our coin can be utilized to its full potential.

Creating a “Universal Income” for entrepreneurs. Using our state-of-the-art integrated inbound marketing platform, social network, hybrid AI, business services, e-wallet, coin exchange, mining data center, incubator, and blockchain income platforms for success in the crypto-preneurial and entrepreneurial markets.

View the white paper to clearly understand the Markethive vision and mission and the statistics and milestones achieved. White Paper https://markethive.net/Markethive.Whitepaper.V4.pdf

So, how do you get your hands on your share of an ILP? You can choose from the following two ways…

  1. You can purchase fractions of an ILP with the Markethive Token (MHV), starting with 20,000 MHV for 0.01 ILP, through to one full ILP for one million MHV.   
  2. You can wait for the ILP exchange to be completed and then buy ILPs or shares from other exchange members.
  3. You can purchase an ILP or partial shares from us (Markethive) directly. We sell whole shares and fractions as small as 1/10th for $1000.


In conclusion, Markethive's ascension, community participation, and status as a dynamic social network with increasing daily engagement and interaction on the platform indicate a promising future. As a comprehensive social media platform, Markethive offers indispensable inbound marketing tools for business growth and a thriving cryptocurrency ecosystem, ensuring a steady income for its members. With a successful system and the Hivecoin launch on the horizon, Markethive is set for long-term expansion and revolutionizing how we interact and conduct business online.

Markethive is in the final stages of BETA, offering a unique opportunity for individuals to establish themselves as early adopters. This cutting-edge platform is the future of social market broadcasting, providing a comprehensive system for long-term success, financial independence, and a sense of community. By leveraging the power of Web 3.0 technology, Markethive is revolutionizing how we approach social media, inbound marketing, and eCommerce. Take advantage of the chance to secure your place in this innovative ecosystem designed specifically for entrepreneurs.



Editor and Chief Markethive: Deb Williams. (Australia) I thrive on progress and champion freedom of speech. I embrace "Change" with a passion, and my purpose in life is to enlighten people to accept and move forward with enthusiasm. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.




Tim Moseley

A Glimpse into the World of Crypto Exchange Revenue Decentralized Exchanges Emerge Including Markethives Latest Vision It just makes sense

A Glimpse into the World of Crypto Exchange Revenue. Decentralized Exchanges Emerge, including Markethive's Latest Vision. It just makes sense. 

The popularity of cryptocurrency exchanges has skyrocketed in recent years, with a massive influx of users globally utilizing these platforms to purchase, sell, and exchange digital assets. The rise of cryptocurrencies has brought about a peculiar phenomenon where centralized exchanges hold a dominant position in various aspects, including profitability, usage, stature, and innovation, with examples such as perpetual swaps, a derivative product pioneered in the crypto space. Meanwhile, decentralized exchanges (DEXs) have introduced innovations like automated market makers (AMMs) to the landscape.

In a previous article, we reviewed how crypto trading exchanges made money and, for the first time, surpassed the traditional stock exchanges in 2021. Now, we’ll outline some of the leading centralized crypto exchanges’ revenue and ponder the emergence of decentralized crypto exchanges, which are imperative for security, legitimacy, and autonomy. 

Centralized Crypto Exchanges

Hundreds of centralized exchanges are out there, with many holding their own catering to specific niches. Below is an overview of five leading centralized crypto exchanges, their fortunes, and misfortunes in their efforts to remain successful and serve the crypto community worldwide.  

Source: Binance 


Binance has emerged as a leading platform for cryptocurrency trading, with a whopping $7.7 trillion in exchange volume in 2021. Founded in 2017 by Changpeng Zhao, a seasoned industry expert who previously held key roles at Blockchain.info and OKCoin, Binance has solidified its position as a dominant force in the digital asset market.

Initially introduced in Hong Kong, it rapidly gained popularity as one of the premier exchanges. However, it encountered a series of strict regulations, with China issuing a ban on crypto exchanges that led it to relocate its servers and headquarters to Malta. Currently, Binance staff are scattered worldwide and work from home. 

Despite facing scrutiny from regulatory authorities in various countries, Binance has managed to maintain its position as the leading cryptocurrency exchange by volume. The company has been investigated in the US and UK, which has led to several banks prohibiting their customers from transferring funds to Binance. Nevertheless, Binance continues to outperform its rival, Coinbase, which has a more extensive user base but lower trading volumes. Binance ranks #1 on CoinMarketCap.

Binance key statistics

  • Binance made $20 billion in revenue in 2021, a 263% YoY increase.
  • Binance has an estimated 28.6 million users as of October 2021.
  • Binance's annual spot trading for 2021 is already seven times larger than its 2020 value.
  • Its peak 24-hour trading volume is $76 billion.

Source: Coinpedia


Since its establishment in 2012, Coinbase has been at the forefront of the cryptocurrency industry, holding the position of the largest exchange in the United States regarding trading volume. Currently ranking at #2 on CoinMarketCap, it is primarily recognized as a platform for buying, selling, and storing Bitcoin. Coinbase also provides various options for exchanging different cryptocurrencies and traditional fiat currencies.

Before Bitcoin's meteoric rise, Coinbase seamlessly integrated its payment processing system with prominent platforms such as Stripe, Braintree, and PayPal while also forming partnerships with major merchants, including Dell, Expedia, and Time Inc. This strategic move positioned Coinbase for success in 2017, a year that would prove to be a turning point for both the company and the cryptocurrency market as a whole. In this year, Coinbase expanded its offerings by adding new coins to its exchange and achieved a remarkable revenue milestone of nearly $1 billion.

Coinbase has faced numerous allegations, such as excessively charging customers for transactions and delays in making currencies accessible. Additionally, it was compelled to disclose information to the IRS about traders in the United States who held significant amounts of cryptocurrency. Although Coinbase went public in 2021, its worth has become closely linked to the price of Bitcoin, resulting in a continuous decrease in value throughout 2022.

Coinbase key statistics

  • Coinbase Global annual revenue in 2022 was $3.194 billion, a 59.25% decline from 2021.
  • Coinbase has 98 million users worldwide, and nine million people exchange monthly.
  • Coinbase lost $2.6 billion in 2022, a massive swing for the company, which reported $3 billion in net profit the previous year.
  • Coinbase global total assets for 2022 were $89.7 billion, a 321.75% increase from 2021.

Source: SignHouse


Kraken is among the pioneering cryptocurrency exchanges, with its roots in San Francisco, USA. Founded by Jesse Powell in 2011, the platform aimed to provide a reliable and secure environment for users to trade digital assets. In response to the security breach at Mt. Gox in 2011, Powell saw the need for a robust exchange and launched Kraken publicly in 2013, committed to creating a haven for cryptocurrency enthusiasts.

Kraken ranks #3 on CoinMarketCap and has emerged as the leading crypto exchange in the Eurozone, thanks to its integration with the Bloomberg Terminal and timely involvement in the Mt. Gox saga. Initially, Kraken's growth was fueled by its provision of market data on bitcoin trading, which made it a hit among traders. However, its user base significantly surged when Mt. Gox ceased operations in 2014. As Kraken was chosen to spearhead the search for 650,000 missing Bitcoins and distribute Mt. Gox's assets to creditors, many Mt. Gox creditors opened trading accounts with Kraken, thereby providing the exchange with early liquidity.

Kraken's initial edge as the sole gateway for Euro-based crypto trading has resulted in its position as the leading exchange for Euro trading volume. However, its growth has been outpaced by other exchanges, such as Binance and FTX, which have expanded their offerings and user base faster. Despite being launched later, in 2017 and 2019, respectively, Binance and FTX have now surpassed Kraken in size. This can be attributed to their faster introduction of new features and currencies and their provision of high-risk, high-reward trading options that Kraken does not offer.

Kraken Key Statistics

  • Kraken is valued at $10.8 billion, a valuation/revenue of 7.4X
  • Kraken’s 2022 revenue reached a new milestone of $47.11 million.
  • In 2022, Kraken exceeded 9 million users worldwide.
  • Kraken's monthly average trading volume in 2022 is $33.1 billion.

Source: Coinmarketcap

HTX (formerly Huobi Global)

HTX, a prominent cryptocurrency trading platform, ranks #15 on CoinMarketCap regarding trading volume. Founded in 2013 by Leon Li and Du Jun, the exchange has recently caught the attention of Justin Sun, Tron's founder, who has taken on an advisory role and is considered a de facto owner. To commemorate its 10th anniversary, Huobi Global rebranded to HTX in September 2023, with the letters "H" and "T" representing Huobi and TRON, respectively, and "X" symbolizing the exchange.

HTX Exchange holds significant influence in Asian markets and was initially established in China. However, due to heightened regulatory measures, HTX decided to move its operations to the Republic of Seychelles. In addition to its physical offices in South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, HTX also established a presence in the United States in 2018. Unfortunately, this office had to be shut down due to regulatory issues. Following the crackdown in China, HTX experienced a decrease of approximately 30% in its revenue, which further fueled its drive for global expansion.

HTX did not benefit from the recent bear market. In 2020, the platform generated approximately $250 million in quarterly revenue, which increased to $1.25 billion in mid-2021. However, by the end of 2022, HTX's quarterly revenue had decreased by 98% compared to 2021. In 2023, HTX focused on burning its HT token to reduce its circulation supply and potentially raise its value. Additionally, HTX adjusted its burning methods to align with other prominent cryptocurrency exchanges.

HTX Key Statistics

  • HTX's estimated annual revenue is currently $110.1M.
  • HTX is handling over $4 billion in daily trading volume.
  • Total assets are approximately $2.35 billion.

Source: Coingeek

OKX (formerly OKEx)

Since its inception in 2013, OKX has undergone various iterations. Mingxing "Star" Xu established it as the OKCoin.cn Bitcoin exchange in China. Subsequently, an international variant called OKCoin.com was introduced, which continues to operate as a fiat-supporting exchange in select markets. In 2017, OKEx, an all-digital-asset platform, was launched concurrently with the International Digital Asset Exchange (IDAX). Over time, OKX has expanded its presence to encompass the European Union, the United States, and Latin America. The company's headquarters are located in Seychelles.

In 2022, OKEx rebranded and changed its name to 'OKX' to adapt to decentralized services. According to OKX, this change in name and image will guide the company toward a decentralized future where digital assets merge with other innovative experiences. The letter "X" symbolizes the uncharted and yet-to-be-discovered opportunities in the financial and virtual domains. OKX holds the rank #5 on CoinMarketCap

The company has made the strategic decision to enter the emerging world of cryptocurrency and delve into DeFi offerings, NFTs, gaming, and metaverses. This expansion signifies OKX's desire to explore the possibilities within the crypto realm fully and transform it into a comprehensive destination for all types of cryptocurrency enthusiasts.

OKX Key Statistics

  • OKX’s year-to-date is $50 – $75 million. 
  • OKX's year-to-date volume is $960.9 billion.
  • OKX has over 20 million users worldwide in over 100 countries.
  • Total assets: Nearly $11.8 billion

Decentralized Crypto Exchanges 

Over the past few years, decentralized exchanges (DEXs) have become strong contenders to the conventional centralized exchange (CEX) model. Blockchain technologies like cryptocurrency are based on a philosophy of decentralization. As a result, it is only natural that decentralized exchanges have emerged to challenge the established centralized exchanges. These recent developments have fostered a distinctively unique ecosystem for crypto assets, attracting a growing community of traders and investors.

What makes DEXs unique is that they're peer-to-peer marketplaces that let cryptocurrency traders make direct transactions — without an intermediary managing their funds. Instead, DEXs use smart contracts that self-execute their agreements, and innovative solutions have been devised to solve liquidity-related issues.

Source: IQ.wiki 

The 1inch Network

The 1inch network was introduced in May 2019, while its token, 1INCH, was launched in December 2020 by its founders, Sergej Kunz, and Anton Bukov. Before co-founding 1inch, Kunz was employed full-time as a cybersecurity specialist at Porsche and worked as a senior developer at a price aggregator. Bukov, on the other hand, has experience in software development and has recently been involved in decentralized finance.

The 1inch network uses multiple protocols: Aggregation, Liquidity, and Limit Order Protocol. The synergy of these protocols ensures fast and protected operations in the DeFi space. It unifies numerous decentralized exchanges (DEXs) into a user-friendly platform. This lets users compare and optimize their crypto trades and swaps without navigating multiple exchanges separately. The network's initial protocol, a decentralized exchange aggregator solution, scours various liquidity sources to provide users with the best possible rates, exceeding those offered by any individual exchange.

The 1inch Aggregation Protocol leverages identify the most optimal paths across a vast network of over 300 liquidity sources spread across ten different blockchain platforms, including Ethereum, BNB Chain, Polygon, Avalanche, Optimistic Ethereum, Arbitrum, Fantom, Gnosis Chain, Klaytn, and Aurora. 

Even though the cryptocurrency market was experiencing a downturn and chaos due to the collapse of centralized entities, UST, and a well-known crypto hedge fund, users are still actively trading on the 1inch Network. Despite the market decline, the increase in trading volume on 1inch indicates that users strongly desire to adjust their investment portfolios to withstand the market conditions. 1inch has proven its value to users during a challenging economic environment by consistently growing its trading volumes.

1inch Key Statistics 

  • Total earnings for 2022-’23: $12.5 million
  • Total volume 2022-’23: $175.1 million. 
  • 1inch has approximately 4.9 million users, accommodating 54,300 users per day.
  • 1inch’s Market cap is $377.2 million and ranked 110th out of all 8,819 active cryptocurrencies listed on CoinMarketCap.

Source: Ailtra


dYdX has established itself as a leading decentralized exchange platform globally, supporting over 35 cryptocurrencies. Founded by Antonio Juliano, a California-based entrepreneur and former Coinbase engineer, in July 2017, the platform provides various services such as trading, lending, and borrowing and initially operated on the Ethereum Layer-1 network. dYdX also introduced its native currency, DYDX, in August 2017.  

The company is widely acclaimed for its cross-margin perpetual trading, making it a comprehensive hub for decentralized financial transactions. As a DEX offering derivatives, dYdX was an early mover, rolling out its first perpetual swap (perp-swap) offering in 2020. Three years later, most DEX trading activity is still on spot-trading venues. The leading exception is dYdX.

The high trading volume on dYdX can be attributed to two significant developments in 2021. Firstly, dYdX migrated from the Ethereum mainnet to utilize layer-2 rollups powered by Starkware, resulting in faster and more affordable transactions. Additionally, introducing the dYdX protocol token boosted the platform. It is a governance token that allows the dYdX community to own and govern the protocol truly, aligning incentives between traders, liquidity providers, and broader stakeholders. These enhancements, known as dYdX v3, have contributed to a substantial increase in trading activity, with the number of listed pairs growing from 3 to over 30.

In June 2022, dYdX v3 was replaced with a new version, the dYdX v4. The dYdX Chain (currently on the public Testnet from Sept. 2023) marks a significant milestone in the company's development as it shifts towards a decentralized, community-driven model. Leveraging the Cosmos SDK, dYdX creates a transparent and trustless central order book exchange governed by validators and stakers. The ratio of fee distribution will be determined by on-chain governance, ensuring that holders of the dYdX token will receive a share of the fee revenues. 

In a move towards true decentralization, dYdX Trading Inc. and other central parties will not have access to trading fees on dYdX V4, as promised by the core team in their January 2022 announcement. It’s interesting to note that considering the recent market downturn, the exchange has seen volume and revenue while focusing on development, which can help the platform grow when the activity returns in the crypto market. dYdX currently sits at #1 of the DEX listings on CoinMarketCap.

dYdX Key Statistics 

  • dYdX’s semi-annual report states that dYdX’s trading volume has surpassed $230 billion, with a daily volume of $1 billion. The v3 platform recently exceeded $1 trillion in cumulative trading volume.
  • dYdX has generated $71.1 million in revenue in 2023 to date. 
  • dYdX’s user base is over 60K, with 1.8K active daily users. 

Successful Crypto Exchanges Have A Community-First Ethos

The backbone of a thriving cryptocurrency exchange lies in its dedicated community. Beyond the utility of its token and the services provided by the exchange, the involvement and support of its community are crucial in fostering the widespread adoption of cryptocurrency. Crypto communities have become instrumental in promoting digital assets and driving mainstream adoption worldwide.

Some projects and exchanges in the industry have taken a community-first stance. This shift has led to the rise of community-driven initiatives, where open communication and shared decision-making are the cornerstones of project development. By placing the reins in the hands of the community, developers can harness the collective power of the crowd, fostering a spirit of collaboration and shared ownership. This emphasis on community building has, in turn, given rise to the creation of social networks explicitly tailored to the needs of the crypto community.

Thomas Prendergast, the founder and CEO of Markethive, firmly believes that community-driven approaches will shape the future of businesses. Markethive, a pioneering social market broadcasting platform built on blockchain technology, is set to launch its cryptocurrency, Hivecoin (HVC), on the crypto market. Moreover, the company offers a unique opportunity to early adopters through its Founders Token, representing the ILP and allowing them to be a part of the emerging Markethive ecosystem and share in its value and revenue.

The Markethive system fosters community engagement and growth by recognizing and rewarding contributors who share a common purpose. By leveraging the collective enthusiasm of like-minded individuals, we can create a self-sustaining ecosystem that benefits its members and extends its impact to the broader communities they are a part of. This approach will have a transformative impact on our professional and social lives and unlock unforeseen opportunities. 

So, the next logical step for Markethive, with all its ducks in a row, is to embark on a project that will complete its ecosystem: a decentralized crypto exchange. 

Image: Markethive.com

Markethive Crypto Exchange: It just makes sense. 

Thomas has a clear vision for Markethive's next venture: a cutting-edge crypto exchange that leverages the platform's unique strengths, including innovative inbound marketing strategies, blogcasting capabilities, dynamic social engagement, and community-driven support. This new endeavor is a natural progression for Markethive, allowing it to expand its reach and provide users with a seamless trading experience that integrates the platform's proven features.

The decentralized crypto exchange will be a separate offshore company collaborating with Markethive that can offer a strategic partnership that includes integrated traffic and a built-in community, gamification, promotional support for new coin listings, press releases, and custom articles to create a dynamic trading platform. The exchange will also provide automated memberships, airdrops, and promo codes to encourage sign-ups, all of which will be supported by a vast and engaged community that can help promote and establish new coins on the exchange, potentially attracting millions of interested users to Markethive.

Markethive's new exchange will significantly benefit all E1s and community members with ILPs as that membership represents revenue, which increases Markethive's revenue. So even if you’re not in an ownership position with Markethive’s new exchange, the exchange is a revenue engine for Markethive and will drive the membership in Markethive into the stratosphere and thereby increase the revenue so it is to everyone’s benefit. It will increase the value of your Hivecoin and produce revenue to fund the ILPs. This fulcrum will send Markethive into another realm, becoming a giant in the crypto exchange industry, and will solidify Markethive's position as a leading ecosystem. 

The emergence of a multi-polar world is evident, with the growing influence of the BRICs and the potential for others to offer similar solutions. This shift presents an opportunity for Markethive to establish itself as a neutral and apolitical platform capable of facilitating cross-border transactions without the constraints of sanctions or political allegiances. By operating offshore, its crypto exchange can enable the seamless exchange of payments from all countries, promoting financial inclusion and accessibility for the benefit of people worldwide.

Markethive offers a refuge from the harmful strategies of authoritarianism, which persist in threatening the stability of nations worldwide. As an alternative economic system, we are committed to promoting individual freedom and autonomy, in contrast to the oppressive and centralized control advocated by fascist and communist ideologies. Our goal is to empower individuals and communities rather than submit to the dictates of a single, all-powerful authority.

Markethive is set to revolutionize the cryptocurrency exchange landscape by inviting its community members to participate in this groundbreaking project. By engaging its community in this innovative endeavor, Markethive aims to offer an unparalleled opportunity for involvement at an unprecedented low cost, promising remarkable rewards. Stay tuned for more updates on this exciting development.

Join us on Sundays at 10 am MST as we reach new heights in revenue-generating integrations. Be a part of the excitement and witness the cutting-edge technology and innovative concepts of Markethive firsthand. Get your questions answered and participate in the conversation as we work together to create the ultimate ecosystem. Don't miss out – join us in the meeting room. The link to this can be found in the Markethive Calendar.
We look forward to seeing you there!

This article is provided for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as legal, tax, investment, financial, or other advice.



Editor and Chief Markethive: Deb Williams. (Australia) I thrive on progress and champion freedom of speech. I embrace "Change" with a passion, and my purpose in life is to enlighten people to accept and move forward with enthusiasm. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.





Tim Moseley

Online Safety 101 How to Keep Cyber Snoopers at Bay

Online Safety 101: How to Keep Cyber Snoopers at Bay

Have you ever paused to reflect on those emails from your bank urging you to update your information or the seemingly innocent act of connecting to your favorite coffee shop's Wi-Fi for a quick cup of joe? In the vast landscape of our digitally connected lives, have you ever entertained the thought of whether someone might be eavesdropping on your conversations?

In the contemporary world, where our daily routines intertwine seamlessly with digital communication, safeguarding the security and privacy of our online interactions has assumed a position of unparalleled significance. Alas, the challenge persists as cybercriminals continuously evolve, devising innovative methods to exploit vulnerabilities within our digital systems. Among these threats, the man-in-the-middle attack stands out as a particularly sophisticated and menacing technique, posing a substantial risk to the integrity of our digital security.

In this article, we explore the man-in-the-middle attack, unraveling its intricate workings, understanding its far-reaching implications, and, most importantly, arming ourselves with knowledge on how to shield against this pervasive cybercrime. Join us on this journey as we delve into the nuances of digital security and equip ourselves with the tools to navigate the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats.

Source: Imperva.com

What is a Man-In-The-Middle Attack?

Imagine a scenario where your digital conversations aren't as private as you think; that's the unsettling reality of a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, a serious cybersecurity threat more pervasive than we might realize. In this digital battleground, an attacker sneaks into the communication channel between two unsuspecting parties, much like a sneaky postal worker sorting through your mail.

The term "man-in-the-middle" is fitting because, just like that rogue mailman, the attacker plants themselves right in the middle of the communication flow. It's akin to this mail mischief-maker intercepting your bank statement, jotting down your account details, and then sealing the envelope back up before it reaches your mailbox. The victim remains blissfully unaware of this intrusion.

So, why is this cyber maneuver so dangerous? Well, imagine the rogue mailman stealing not just your bank statement but also your login credentials, credit card numbers, and other personal details. That's what happens in an MITM attack. The attacker gains access to sensitive information, opening the door to identity theft, unauthorized fund transfers, and other malicious exploits.

What makes MITM attacks particularly treacherous is their stealthy nature. They can lurk undetected for long periods, silently pilfering information. It's like a silent invader setting up camp in your digital space without you even realizing it. Worse yet, these attacks can introduce malware onto your device, giving the attacker complete control over your system.

MITM attacks come in various shades, from the passive ones, where the attacker slyly intercepts user traffic, to the active ones, where the attacker actively manipulates or alters the data flow. It’s like different tactics in a cyber playbook – IP spoofing, DNS spoofing, HTTPS spoofing, and email spoofing, each with its own crafty strategy.

Source: ReadyTechGo.com


Have you ever gotten a sketchy message from an unknown number posing as your bank or an enticing email from a supposed unfamiliar angel promising a piece of his fortune? These seemingly harmless messages might just be the tip of the iceberg regarding a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, a favorite trick in the cyber criminal's playbook, where sensitive information is stolen from the unsuspecting victim.

So, what's the deal with interception, and how does it play into the whole MITM drama? Interception is like a digital sleight of hand with which the attacker slyly intercepts your online traffic before it reaches its intended destination. In the MITM attacks, the cyber trickster strategically positions themselves between two chit-chatting parties to either sneak a peek or slyly tweak the data passing between them.

The more straightforward and common form of MITM interception is where the attacker sets up a free Wi-Fi hotspot, maybe with a sneaky name like "CoffeeShop_FreeWiFi," and lures unsuspecting victims. Once connected, the attacker gets a backstage pass to all the victim's online data exchanges, kind of like a digital puppet master pulling the strings.

The attacker can spoof your IP and trick your computer into thinking it's hitting up a legitimate website when, in reality, it's a detour to the attacker's lair. Another move is DNS spoofing, where the attacker messes with your computer's GPS, sending it to the wrong digital address, aka their server, instead of the real deal. And who could forget HTTPS spoofing? This is like setting up a fake secure website, inviting victims to input their sensitive info, and then snatching it up like a digital pickpocket.

Email spoofing is another player in the MITM game. The attacker crafts an email that looks legit, maybe even mimicking a trustworthy source, to lull victims into a false sense of security. Once the victim bites, the attacker swoops in to nab the sensitive data. Here's the kicker: in all these cyber theatrics, the attacker stays incognito, a ghost in the machine, intercepting and manipulating data without the communicating parties having a clue. They might even drop malware on a targeted user's device, making themselves right at home.


Alright, let's unravel the second act in the drama of a man-in-the-middle attack, which is decryption. Now that the digital trickster has nabbed the data sailing between two parties, it's time for the grand reveal. Decryption, in simple terms, is like translating a secret code back into something understandable. 

In the wild landscape of a man-in-the-middle escapade, decryption is the secret sauce that turns the jumbled-up, encrypted data back into its original, readable form. Now, why is this a big deal? Well, it's the key to unlocking a treasure trove of sensitive info – think login credentials, financial details, and personally identifiable information (PII). The attacker unleashes this process to expose what was meant to be private and secure.

One classic thing the attacker does is known as the packet sniffer. A virtual detective captures and dissects the data zipping across the network. It's like intercepting letters and reading them before they reach the recipient. Sneaky, right? Then there's the brute-force attack, a cyber brute trying every password combination until it hits the jackpot. It's like trying every key in the bunch until one finally opens the door. Another trick up the attacker's sleeve is the rainbow table attack, which is a cheat sheet of pre-computed encrypted passwords, speeding up the process of finding the original password. It's the cyber equivalent of having a master key.

But why should we care about decryption? Well, if the attacker succeeds, they waltz right into sensitive information territory. This can lead to identity theft, fraud, and other malicious endeavors. Plus, decryption is like the golden ticket for installing malware on a targeted user's device, the cyber version of an uninvited guest overstaying their welcome.


Now that we've uncovered the ins and outs of man-in-the-middle attacks and how these sneaky maneuvers go down let's arm you with the knowledge to steer clear of falling victim to them. Lucky for us, there are several effective methods to keep these digital tricksters at bay. Let's dive into some savvy ways to keep yourself in the clear:

1. Embrace the Power of VPNs:
Think of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) as your digital superhero cape. It encrypts all your internet traffic and guides it through its own secure servers. Even if an attacker tries to intercept your data, they'll just be staring at a wall of encryption. It's like sending your online messages in an unbreakable code.

Source: Markethive.com

This dynamic duo of HTTPS and SSL/TLS transforms your internet communication into a secret language. When you visit a website using HTTPS, just like Markethive does, your browser locks arms with the website's server in a secure handshake. An attacker attempting to eavesdrop finds nothing but encrypted gibberish. It's like turning your online conversations into an encrypted treasure chest.

3. Safeguard with Email and DNS Security:
Email and DNS can be the Trojan horses of MITM attacks, but fear not! Strengthen your defenses with email security tools like SPF, DKIM, and DMARC to verify the legitimacy of your emails. For DNS, enlist the help of a secure resolver to ensure your DNS requests aren't being intercepted. It's like adding an extra layer of protection to your digital communication channels.

Sender Policy Framework (SPF), DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM), and Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance (DMARC) are email security tools that can help you protect your emails from spoofing, phishing, and spam. They work by verifying the sender’s identity and the integrity of the email content.

4. Double Down with Two-Factor Authentication (2FA):
Think of 2FA as having a bouncer at the entrance to your digital party. It requires a password and a second form of verification, like a code sent to your phone. This tag team ensures that only you get VIP access. It's like having a secret handshake for your online accounts.

5. Arm Yourself with Anti-virus Software:
Consider anti-virus software as your digital bodyguard. It scans, detects, and blocks potential threats, acting as a shield against MITM attacks. Keep it up-to-date to stay one step ahead of the cyber baddies.

6. Keep Software Updated:
Updating your software is like giving your digital fortress a fresh coat of paint. Hackers often exploit vulnerabilities in outdated software, so ensure your operating system, web browser, and other applications are rocking the latest security patches. It's like fortifying your defenses against unseen invaders.

It's essential you understand that by weaving these prevention methods into your digital routine, you significantly reduce the risk of becoming a victim of a man-in-the-middle attack. Remember, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. So, gear up, stay vigilant, and keep the online baddies at bay!

Detecting a Man-In-The-Middle Attack

Detecting a man-in-the-middle attack can be subtle, but it’s important to stay alert. The first sign something’s off will likely be a slowdown in internet or network speed. If you notice it taking longer than usual to load pages, watch out; you might be under attack. The next sign is a pop-up error message. These error messages can appear for several reasons, but if the error message says, “The security certificate presented by this website is not secure,” that’s a red flag. An improper security certificate is a definite sign that the website is not secure and may have been compromised.

Network Monitoring is essential in detecting a man-in-the-middle attack. Network monitoring tools come in various shapes and sizes. They keep track of network traffic, identify traffic patterns, and check for suspicious behavior. SSL Certificate Warnings are some of the most common ways web browsers detect a Man-in-the-Middle Attack. 

When attempting to visit a website with an invalid certificate, the browser warns its user of its dangers, often citing the risk of middleman attacks. Suspicious Network Activity is another sign. If your network administrator or ISP has monitoring tools in place, unusual network activity can quickly raise a red flag. DNS Spoofing Detection Tools can help detect DNS hijacking and monitor suspicious activity on your network.

It's always best to have multiple lines of defense when trying to detect a man-in-the-middle attack. Using a combination of techniques and tools is key to recognizing suspicious activity before it's too late. Remember, prevention is always the best defense. Staying vigilant and using the preventive measures outlined in the previous section is vital. 

Examples of Man-In-The-Middle Attacks

As you might have figured out by now, man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks are pretty dangerous. They are used to steal sensitive information from various targets, including users of financial applications, e-commerce sites, and SaaS businesses. Such attacks can also gain entry into a secure network by installing malware on a user's device.

But let's dive deeper and look at some real-life instances of man-in-the-middle attacks that have occurred. In 2010, an Iranian hacker used a man-in-the-middle attack to access the Gmail accounts of several high-profile individuals, including US government officials and journalists. The attacker created a fraudulent security certificate for Google services, which allowed them to intercept email communication.

DigiNotar, a Dutch certificate authority that the hacker compromised, issued the security certificate. The hacker bypassed the HTTPS encryption that usually protects the communication between a user and a website. The hacker also used a technique called DNS spoofing, which involves changing the DNS records of a domain name to point to a malicious server. This way, the hacker could redirect the users to a fake Google website that looked identical to the real one but was under the hacker’s control.

In 2011, at a Black Hat conference, a researcher named Nicholas Percoco and his colleague Christian Papathanasiou showed how easy it was to run a man-in-the-middle attack on mobile devices running iOS and Android. The attack involved intercepting data packets between a mobile device and a wireless access point using a tool called SSLstrip.

SSLstrip is a tool that can downgrade HTTPS connections to HTTP connections and strip away the encryption that normally protects the communication between a user and a website. The tool can also modify the content of the web pages that the user sees, such as replacing the padlock icon with a fake one or inserting malicious links or scripts.

The researchers demonstrated how they could use SSLstrip to hijack a user’s Facebook session, steal their login credentials, and post messages on their behalf. They also showed how to intercept a user’s email communication, read their messages, and send spoofed emails. They also revealed how to access a user’s online banking account, view their balance, and transfer money to another account.

One of the most widespread man-in-the-middle attacks in recent times is the "Superfish" incident. Lenovo shipped its laptops with adware called "Superfish," designed to serve targeted ads to users. However, Superfish was designed to intercept HTTPS traffic, leaving users vulnerable to MITM attacks.

Another example of a widespread MITM attack is the WannaCry ransomware attack that took place in 2017. The WannaCry ransomware was propagated via a vulnerability in Windows systems and encrypted users' files, demanding a ransom for decryption. This sophisticated ransomware attack attacked several government agencies, businesses, and individuals worldwide. 

While most man-in-the-middle attacks aim to steal user data, some use MITM attacks to target companies and individuals. For instance, during the Syrian civil war, the SEA (Syrian Electronic Army) carried out a targeted MITM attack against the Associated Press (AP) Twitter account. The SEA used the account to post fake news about an explosion at the White House, causing a significant drop in the stock market. While man-in-the-middle attacks might not be new, the stakes are increasing with new technologies such as Artificial Intelligence. So, it's crucial that you stay informed of such attacks and take the necessary precautions to protect your data.

Source: Cyber Security News

Security analysts discovered one recent incident of an MITM attack in April 2023. The attack targeted Wi-Fi networks and could bypass their security mechanisms. The attacker operated by imitating the genuine access point and transmitting a forged Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to redirect the message to a targeted supplier. ICMP is a protocol used to send error messages and other information between network devices.

A redirect message is an ICMP message that tells a device to use a different route to reach a destination. By sending a forged redirect message, the attacker could trick the device into sending its traffic through a malicious router, where the attacker could intercept and modify it. This way, the attacker could hijack any device's traffic connected to the Wi-Fi network and perform various malicious activities, such as stealing passwords, injecting ads, or redirecting users to phishing websites.


So, we know these attacks are dangerous and can happen to anyone, anywhere, at any time. From intercepting personal information to potentially installing malware, cybercriminals will stop at nothing to get what they want, which is why it's so important to be aware of the risks posed by man-in-the-middle attacks.

We've gone over a few key steps to prevent becoming a victim, like using a VPN, HTTPS, SSL/TLS, email and DNS security, and two-factor authentication. It's also essential to keep your software up-to-date and be aware of suspicious network activity. But even with these precautions, it's not always possible to avoid a man-in-the-middle attack, so it's important to know how to detect one if it does happen.

Whether it's noticing strange SSL certificate warnings or monitoring network activity, early detection can be the difference between a minor inconvenience and a major data breach. And while it's easy to feel overwhelmed by the thought of cybercriminals lurking around every corner, being aware of the risks posed by man-in-the-middle attacks is the first step toward protecting yourself. 

Remember, attacks like these can happen to anyone. Still, you can minimize your risk and stay safe in an increasingly dangerous digital world by remaining vigilant and taking the necessary precautions. So, whether you're shopping online, checking your bank account, or browsing the web, remember to stay alert, stay safe, and watch for those pesky man-in-the-middle attacks. After all, when it comes to online security, a little awareness can go a long way to save you from disaster.



About: Prince Ibenne. (Nigeria) Prince is passionate about helping people understand the crypto-verse through his easily digestible articles. He is an enthusiastic supporter of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.





Tim Moseley

How Do Crypto Exchanges Generate Revenue Even In A Turbulent Market?

How Do Crypto Exchanges Generate Revenue Even In A Turbulent Market?

Cryptocurrency exchanges have demonstrated remarkable resilience during market downturns, unlike institutional investors and individual traders. This is attributed to their role as market makers, fostering trader and institutional activity, and charging fees for their services. This article will outline the financial performance of crypto exchanges, exploring their primary revenue streams and the intricacies involved in generating profits through these means.

According to a financial services consultancy Opimas report, cryptocurrency exchanges made $24.3 billion in global trading revenue in 2021. This is the first time that the revenue generated by cryptocurrency exchanges has exceeded that of traditional stock exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq.

The revenue generated by cryptocurrency exchanges was estimated to have increased by 7X compared to the $3.4 billion in sales reported in 2020. Moreover, it was found that the revenue from these exchanges surpassed that of traditional securities exchanges by approximately 60%, which totaled around $15.2 billion.

In just one year, there has been a significant change in the revenue dynamics between traditional exchanges and cryptocurrency exchanges. Previously, well-established and respected entities such as the New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq, Deutsche Borse, and CME were generating 4X more revenue compared to their crypto counterparts. However, the tables have turned, as Binance has left these traditional exchanges far behind in performance and growth.

Source: Marketwatch

What Is A Crypto Exchange?

A cryptocurrency exchange is an online platform where individuals can trade different digital currencies, either for other cryptos or traditional fiat currencies. These exchanges provide an alternative method for obtaining cryptocurrencies, aside from methods such as mining or receiving them through airdrops. Some well-known examples of cryptocurrency exchanges include Binance, Kraken, Coinbase, HTX (formerly Huobi Global), and OKX (formerly OKEx). 

Cryptocurrency exchanges have become lucrative businesses, with some valued in the billions of dollars. The surge in interest in digital currencies has resulted in a significant increase in their valuations and revenues. Coinbase and Binance are two examples of crypto exchanges that have benefited from this trend. But have you ever wondered how these exchanges generate their substantial income? Below are some overt ways in which a crypto exchange creates revenue. 

Trading Commission and Withdrawal Fees  

Crypto exchanges generate profits by calculating the difference between their income and operating expenses, such as maintenance, promotion, support for liquidity levels, and taxes. The primary source of income for these exchanges comes from trading commissions charged to users (traders) for every transaction. When a trade occurs, which involves closing two opposing orders (one selling, the other buying), the exchange collects a commission from both the seller's and the buyer's orders. 

For example, the exchange takes a commission from both sides with a trading commission rate of 0.1% of the order value. However, if an order is executed externally, the exchange only charges a commission from one side of the transaction.

An Active User Base is Crucial

It’s important to note for an exchange to generate revenue through trading commissions and profits, it must cultivate a thriving trading environment, which hinges on having a substantial number of active users. While tools like market makers and trading bots can help stimulate activity, they cannot replace the value of genuine traders who facilitate the exchange of assets and generate commissions.

The number of active users (AU) is a vital metric in assessing a cryptocurrency exchange's revenue-generating capabilities. Although financial information in the cryptocurrency exchange domain is limited, examining available data points, such as the number of active users, can provide valuable insights.

Over recent years, cryptocurrency exchanges have been raking in substantial profits, with Binance being a prime example. According to publicly available data, Binance has generated over $1.8 billion in trading revenue since the beginning of 2021, thanks to its 28.6 million active users. The exchange's peak trading volume for the year reached an impressive $76 billion, with commissions ranging from 0% to 0.50% depending on the volume of transactions.

It’s worth noting the figures and the time when the cryptocurrency market reached its lowest point in 2018. During that period, only 313,000 users were engaging in trading on Binance. Despite being deemed relatively low activity, the popular exchanges still managed to generate substantial profits, with Binance making $446 million. While this number may not be as impressive as the most recent data, it effectively illustrates the ability of exchanges to survive even during challenging periods.

Additionally, a crucial factor to consider is the typical trading volume of a single active user. It's reasonable to assume that the higher this amount, the greater the commission the exchange earns. However, what truly matters is the volume of trades conducted by genuine active users rather than the total trading volume, which automated trading bots can inflate to the tune of 70% or more.

Withdrawal fees are also a source of revenue for crypto exchanges. The withdrawal fee amount is influenced by several factors, such as the type of asset being withdrawn, the amount of funds being transferred, and the transfer method. Some trading platforms charge a fixed withdrawal fee, while others, usually lesser-known and newer crypto exchanges, do not charge this fee to attract new users. However, it's worth noting that charging a deposit fee is not recommended, even for well-established platforms, as it can discourage users from using the platform.

Listing Fees for New Cryptos

Fees for listing a new cryptocurrency on major exchanges range from $2 million to $5 million, with some exchanges charging as high as $10 million to 15 million. The listing price varies depending on the specific project, considering factors such as the desired service package, which could include marketing support or technical assistance. There is no standard fee for listing as it is determined on a case-by-case basis.

For cryptocurrency projects looking to expand their reach, being listed on a well-established platform can increase visibility and access to a broader pool of investors. This often leads to accelerated growth for these coins. Interestingly, some prominent cryptocurrency exchanges choose to either hide or openly express their hesitation to list lower-quality coins, often referred to as "shitcoins," on their platform.

Market Making

The Market Making (MM) function ensures that traders can execute their orders seamlessly and at competitive prices, even when there may be a lack of liquidity. This is achieved by providing additional liquidity and maintaining a stable price range, thereby preventing price gaps and ensuring that buy and sell orders can be matched without delay. For instance, if a trader wants to sell an altcoin on an exchange with low trading volume, the MM function will instantly purchase the asset, executing the sale without any issues.

Customers may have the misconception that regular traders swiftly complete transactions. However, the reality is that market makers are the ones who acquire orders for subsequent resale. These market makers are accessible on every platform and provide assurance of liquidity. Conversely, if traders were to find themselves in the opposite situation, they would have to wait weeks before encountering a buyer.

Margin Trading 

Trading on margin, also known as leverage, allows traders to borrow funds from the exchange in order to amplify their buying ability. This strategy offers the potential for greater profits, but it also comes with increased risks. However, it is important to note that if a trader's prediction fails, they are not necessarily left in debt.

The leverage provided by the exchange allows traders to increase their order size. Traders are protected from losing more than they have, and the exchange is not at risk of failure. For instance, if a trader has $10,000 in their account and decides to purchase bitcoin with 5X leverage, they can buy bitcoin worth $50,000. Suppose the Bitcoin price drops and becomes more affordable. In that case, the exchange typically stops at the trader's initial $10,000 investment and alerts them with a margin call, or the opposite can also happen.

Earning Services

Cryptocurrency exchanges can profit by offering services that enable users to earn money. These services include staking, lending, and a crypto marketplace. Staking involves users locking their cryptocurrencies in a wallet to help sustain the operations of a blockchain network. Through this process, they become part of the network's consensus mechanism and receive rewards in exchange. The exchange generates income by charging a fee or taking rewards earned from staking the delegated coins.

Cryptocurrency lending allows users to loan their digital assets to other individuals or organizations, earning interest on their investments. Exchanges play a crucial role in facilitating these transactions, connecting lenders with borrowers, and overseeing the process to ensure its success. In return for their services, exchanges collect fees or take a portion of the interest lenders earn, generating revenue for their platform.

Cryptocurrency exchanges can also offer a platform for users to buy and sell assets, known as a crypto marketplace. This marketplace allows users to trade digital assets such as NFTs, cryptocurrencies, and more traditional products like Bitrefill gift cards and phone refills. The exchanges generate revenue by charging trading fees, a percentage of the transaction volume, or a fixed amount per trade.

Token Launchpad

Exchanges generate revenue from token launchpads through listing fees, which projects must pay to launch their tokens on the exchange's platform. This fee covers costs such as due diligence, legal compliance, technical integration, and marketing efforts to promote the token sale. The listing fee structure can vary between exchanges and depends on the project's size or requirements, with some exchanges offering tiered pricing.

Exchanges may also secure supplementary revenue-sharing arrangements with projects besides listing fees. This can include receiving a portion of the tokens allocated to the exchange as part of the token distribution or obtaining a percentage of the project's future revenues. These agreements can generate recurring revenue streams for exchanges, particularly if the project becomes successful and generates significant income.

In addition, token launchpads provided by exchanges can offer extra benefits to projects, such as marketing assistance, consulting, managing the token sale, and technical support. By charging fees for these additional services, exchanges can generate extra revenue and offer a complete package to aid projects in successfully navigating the token launch procedure.

It is essential to mention that token launch platforms also have advantages for exchanges by drawing in new users and boosting trading activity. When token launches are successful, trading volume often rises as investors trade newly listed tokens. This increased trading activity generates fees from transactions.

Additional Services that Complement Each Other

Crypto exchanges can also generate revenue through complementary services such as connected games or decentralized applications (DApps). By partnering with game developers, exchanges can offer the necessary infrastructure, liquidity, and access to their user base. In return, they can earn a percentage of the transactions or fees generated within these games. This mutually beneficial revenue-sharing model encourages user engagement and promotes growth within the ecosystem.

Cryptocurrency exchanges can team up with prepaid card issuers to provide users with debit cards or prepaid cards connected to their exchange accounts, enabling them to use cryptocurrencies for real-world transactions. This collaboration can generate revenue for exchanges through card issuance fees, transaction fees, or revenue sharing with the prepaid card provider. By incorporating cryptocurrencies into everyday spending, this integration promotes the broader use of cryptocurrencies and contributes to its increased adoption.

Premium Services and Referral Programs 

Certain crypto exchanges provide premium subscription options to expand their income sources, granting users exclusive access to distinct features and advantages. These exchanges offer different paid monthly subscription levels, with benefits such as lower trading fees, higher interest rates on cryptocurrency lending, and increased limits for buying and withdrawing funds.

An instance of this is Coinbase's offering, Coinbase One, which requires a monthly payment of $29.99 in exchange for no trading fees, access to advanced trading tools, increased staking rewards, and priority support. These subscription options are aimed at experienced users, traders, and institutions who engage in frequent transactions and wish to optimize the advantages available to their accounts.

Additionally, numerous crypto exchanges also pay existing users commissions for referring new customers. These referral programs are created to incentivize users to recommend the platform to colleagues and followers on social media or other channels. For instance, Binance provides a beneficial referral program with multiple levels, granting up to 40% in ongoing commissions based on the trading fees of referred users. Coinbase has its own referral program, rewarding $10 in Bitcoin for every new user referred.

Although referral programs may diminish potential revenue, the advantages of acquiring new customers through such programs outweigh the costs for exchanges. Attracting fresh, engaged traders is pivotal in boosting transaction volume and associated fees.

Key Players in Crypto. Source: Statista Market Insights

Important Insights

The key takeaway is that an exchange needs active users who generate a steady income through trading activities. The more users a platform has, the higher the volume of trading commissions, resulting in a more stable financial situation. It’s also advantageous that many exchanges have weathered the market downturns with style, grace, and dignity.  

The popularity of cryptocurrency trading platforms has skyrocketed in recent years, with millions globally utilizing these exchanges to buy, sell, and trade digital assets. According to recent studies, the global revenue in the crypto market was valued at $18.5 billion in 2022 and is projected to reach $64.9 billion by 2027, with an impressive compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.40% between 2023 and 2027.

The cryptocurrency market is primarily controlled by centralized exchanges (CEX) that enable users to buy and sell cryptocurrencies quickly, efficiently, and securely. Nevertheless, decentralized exchanges (DEX) are gaining traction as they give users more autonomy over their assets and eliminate the need for intermediaries, offering a more secure and independent trading experience.

The success of cryptocurrency trading platforms will hinge on their versatility in response to shifting market dynamics. As the global crypto user base has grown to 673.90 million in 2023 and is projected to increase to 994.30 million by 2027, exchanges must demonstrate agility in the face of unpredictable market fluctuations and embrace new trends as they emerge. 

In the upcoming article, we'll take a closer look at the leading crypto exchanges, their revenue streams, and their respective peaks and valleys. Additionally, we'll explore the realm of decentralized exchanges and how various cryptocurrency businesses demonstrate their ability to transform limited resources into thriving ventures at an impressive pace.

This article is provided for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as legal, tax, investment, financial, or other advice.


Editor and Chief Markethive: Deb Williams. (Australia) I thrive on progress and champion freedom of speech. I embrace "Change" with a passion, and my purpose in life is to enlighten people to accept and move forward with enthusiasm. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.





Tim Moseley

Unleashing the Power of Force Multipliers: How Markethive Amplifies Your Business Success

Unleashing the Power of Force Multipliers: How Markethive Amplifies Your Business Success

Entrepreneurs encounter many challenges that can impede their businesses' progress and prosperity. However, force multipliers such as technology, tactics, resources, software, and partnerships can enhance effectiveness and achieve significant results even with limited resources. Markethive, a social neural network, provides a range of force multipliers, including information and content sharing, user-generated content, blockchain technology, storefronts, campaigns, brand ambassadors, awareness of the market, and network connectivity. These force multipliers can expand a business's reach, influence, and development, making Markethive an invaluable asset for entrepreneurs.

The challenges that entrepreneurs encounter can hinder their businesses' long-term success and growth. One common obstacle is figuring out how to effectively utilize the limited resources at their disposal, whether time or money, to achieve the most significant impact and profitability. This is where force multipliers come into play. It is essential to understand what force multipliers are and how powerful they are in addressing these challenges.

The armed forces have long understood the importance of force multipliers. A troop multiplier, for instance, enhances an existing military capability by either increasing its size or utilizing machine guns as force multipliers for rifles. The military would integrate sniper training into various subjects to enhance the value of snipers as a force multiplier and ensure their survival in combat.

Force multipliers are a means to accomplish more remarkable results with the same or reduced amount of effort, similar to how using a drill instead of a screwdriver can make tasks more manageable. These force multipliers can be vital in ensuring the business's survival.

What Are Force Multipliers In The Online World?

In the digital realm, force multipliers refer to the various methods, techniques, technologies, and resources that can significantly enhance your business's competitiveness and give you an edge over your rivals. These force multipliers can help amplify your online presence, streamline operations, and ultimately drive success in the digital marketplace.

Utilizing force multipliers has enabled many entrepreneurs to experience rapid and substantial growth, leading to outcomes that would have been unattainable through other means. By leveraging these tools, you can rapidly scale your efforts and unlock opportunities that otherwise remain out of reach.

Combining these elements creates a powerful effect and dramatically enhances the outcomes for the company, its clients, and the overall economy. By leveraging its strengths, a smaller entity can gain an unfair advantage over a larger, more established competitor with a similar business model, creating a force multiplier effect.

The military interpretation mentioned earlier emphasizes the importance of enhancing capability. Markethive, on the other hand, prioritizes the addition of processes as we aim for the combined marketing elements to unite and surpass the overall marketing endeavor synergistically. Unlike in many other institutions, force multipliers typically serve to optimize store operations or manufacturing productivity.

Marketing force multipliers stem from strategic and procedural innovations that enable businesses to adapt to the rapidly transforming landscape. Outdated linear approaches are no longer practical in today's dynamic market, where retailers and brands must respond to changing consumer behaviors and technological advancements. By embracing new strategies, marketing teams can capitalize on the explosive potential of force multipliers, allowing them to stay ahead of the curve and achieve tremendous success.

Any company seeking expansion must discover its unique Force Multiplier. The hurdle is determining which specific factors will boost your business's growth.

The marketplace is in a state of constant flux, with no shortage of influences impacting it. This highlights the importance of recognizing the factors that can amplify the growth of your brands. These factors must be identified and nurtured. Listed below are Markethive’s force multipliers, which are crucial for online businesses. 

Image: Markethive.com

Force Multipliers In The Digital Realm 

Sharing Info And Content On Social Networks

The speed and interactivity of sharing information and content on social networks is an essential tool for Markethive entrepreneurs. The diverse range of social media platforms available allows for extensive reach and connectivity. These platforms work harmoniously with the Markethive social media platform, enabling a tailored, individualized, interactive collaboration experience.

User-generated Content Attracting Feedback and Reviews

Entrepreneurs can benefit from the immediate sharing of user-generated content, but they must also be prepared to handle feedback and ratings from online users. While this can be a powerful tool for growth, it can also be detrimental if the entrepreneur is not receptive or dismissive of their customers' opinions. To effectively manage online feedback, being attentive and understanding of one's audience is crucial.

Fostering Advocacy: A Key to Success

Advocates should be nurtured. It is vital to cultivate advocates as they serve as an invaluable asset. They are passionate supporters and allies who strongly believe in your brand, cause, or product. These individuals willingly put in the effort without compensation. They become influential figures who can sway the opinions of undecided individuals. They engage in conversations with others and act as a catalyst in building customer loyalty and involvement.

Real-time Situational Awareness and Strategic Network Connectivity 

By leveraging a robust network of connected individuals and groups, your business can stay ahead of the curve and respond promptly to evolving market trends. With the right people and information in place, you'll be empowered to make informed decisions quickly, giving you a competitive edge. 

This proactive approach is a potent force multiplier that enhances your company's situation awareness in real-time, allowing you to stay adaptable and responsive in an ever-changing landscape. This strategic networking capability is an indispensable component of your marketing strategy, enabling you to stay ahead of the competition and achieve long-term success.

Harnessing the Power of Predictive Insights

The ability to forecast forthcoming changes holds immense potential, yet many organizations still need to catch up to adopt data-driven strategies. While some industries, such as law enforcement and healthcare, have embraced predictive analytics to anticipate security concerns and resource needs, many companies still need to utilize this powerful tool. By harnessing the capabilities of predictive intelligence, organizations can gain invaluable insights to preempt changes and stay ahead of the curve.

A network must capitalize on emerging trends and directions. Predictive analytics, such as analytics for anticipating short-term and long-term change, is a powerful tool to recognize trends and requirements at all times. It embodies a culture of innovation.

Storefronts and Campaigns

At Markethive, we offer powerful tools to help entrepreneurs amplify their reach and impact. Our storefronts and associated marketing campaigns are designed to work together seamlessly, providing a force multiplier effect that helps businesses grow and thrive. Additionally, we have integrated broadcasting capabilities that allow group administrators to easily share information with the entire group's social network, further expanding the reach of your message.

The blogging platform is designed to streamline team collaboration and provide comprehensive management reports for administrators. These reports offer visibility into individual team members' activities, including blog posting, autoresponder creation, capture page development, news feed posting, ad management, and new member sponsorship. Additionally, the system features a group rotator that showcases the collective traffic generated by the team and a cooperative mechanism for raising funds and shares to support group advertising campaigns.

Blockchain Technology

Blockchain and smart contracts offer a pivotal advantage by amplifying the impact of crowdsourcing. These innovative methods provide a cost-effective way to incentivize and reward individuals contributing to crowdsourcing initiatives. Entrepreneurs can bypass traditional sources such as professional investors and venture capitalists by obtaining funding directly from the crowd. This enables them to finance the development of new platforms that cater to users' requirements. The Incentivized Loan Program (ILP) serves as a prime illustration of this concept.

Image source: Gotco.in


Users are rewarded with cryptocurrency micropayments for participating in various activities just using the systems on the platform. It creates a fun, engaging, rewarding, and profitable experience. This approach also utilizes gamification elements, with loyalty and bounty programs, to incentivize users and make their engagement even more valuable. The result is a dynamic that amplifies the impact of users' efforts and transforms how they interact with the platform.

Markethive’s Hivecoin (HVC) is alive and well on the official Hivecoin mainnet faucet. Increase your HVC portfolio by visiting the Hivecoin Faucet website daily to receive your free crypto. You just need to paste your Markethive wallet address in the bar, fill in the capture, and claim. You’ll receive 0.00001 HVC in usually a few minutes, up to 3 days. Also, be sure to bookmark the site and visit it daily to accumulate your HVC. This is a powerful force multiplier that increases the transactional activity required to meet exchange protocols. 

Amplify Your Reach with Force Multipliers

It is essential to utilize force multipliers to achieve expansion. Suppose you solely focus on targeting one customer, market, or partnership at a time. In that case, your growth will be limited, and you won't be able to compete effectively, especially against larger competitors with a well-established market presence. By employing force multipliers, you can accelerate your growth, increase scalability, and capitalize on opportunities that would otherwise be out of reach.

Constantly seeking ways to enhance productivity is crucial for businesses and marketers. Given our limited resources and time, it's essential to identify the most effective multipliers for each element to optimize results.

Infographic: Markethive.com

Markethive: What’s In A Name? 

The term "market" encompasses a comprehensive collection of effective inbound marketing resources, such as automated email responders, social media broadcasting tools, landing pages, blogging platforms, search engine optimization tools, lead management systems, and analytics.

The term "hive" refers to the social network present in the system. It is an innovative form of social network known as a Social Neural Network. This concept of a "Hive" offers unparalleled potential for campaigns to capitalize on the network effect, with effortless management and unbridled impact.

Irrespective of your motivation level, Markethive will enhance your schedule, expand your outreach, and create a larger and more impactful sphere of influence than any other platform has ever tried to achieve.

Markethive is an innovative platform that fuses the features of LinkedIn, Facebook, Marketo, and Fiverr, all while utilizing the cutting-edge technology of Blockchain. By doing so, it offers a comprehensive set of Inbound Marketing tools seamlessly integrated into a user-friendly social network. And the best part? It's free to join and even rewards you for participating!

Within Markethive, a thriving cottage industry has given rise to numerous independent businesses as the Markethive entrepreneurs capitalize on the opportunities presented by the platform. Markethive's money machines, such as the Banner Impressions Exchange (BIX), empower associates to harness the system's potential and achieve financial success.

Markethive is in the throes of incorporating more revenue-generating components, such as the E1 Exchange and Promocode. Additional components, referred to as hubs and portals, will be integrated in due course. They are diverse in nature and can also be considered force multipliers, amplifying earning potential.

Just like any other platform, upgrades offer additional features, such as the Entrepreneur One Upgrade, with more entry-level upgrades coming, like the Premium Upgrade launching soon. As a free member, you'll have access to various essential tools for inbound marketing. Plus, you'll be in our thriving social network and even earn crypto rewards, such as micropayments in Hivecoin for your activity on the platform, once you refer three friends or colleagues to join markethive. This article explains more about the referral program. 

We have here the world's first entrepreneur business person's social network, with the entire system offered predominantly for free to the worldwide entrepreneurs market. With the integration of the new streamlined dashboard and various newsfeeds currently in development, the complete system is next-level, clean, and intuitive, delivering every function and aspect available, fitting for the entrepreneur, business, and corporation. 

It encompasses a diverse range of entities, from small, local businesses to global corporations, including cottage industries, real estate and mortgage agencies, insurance providers, affiliate marketers, software developers, musicians, religious organizations, political parties and candidates, distributors, network marketers, innovators, and visionaries.

Cut expenses, boost profits, and expand your online presence with Markethive. This powerful platform allows you to amplify your reach, grow your audience, and increase your revenue stream without breaking the bank. There is no need for expensive internet marketing costs but an increasing need for a more efficient and effective way to achieve brand and financial success and sovereignty in the parallel economy. Markethive is the ultimate Social Market Broadcasting Network and the home of technology-driven Force Multipliers. 

May the force be with you. 



Editor and Chief Markethive: Deb Williams. (Australia) I thrive on progress and champion freedom of speech. I embrace "Change" with a passion, and my purpose in life is to enlighten people to accept and move forward with enthusiasm. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.





Tim Moseley

6 Steps To Unlocking Cryptos Full Potential: Markethives Contribution to the Cause

6 Steps To Unlocking Crypto's Full Potential: Markethive's Contribution to the Cause.

Although Bitcoin has existed for 15 years, the crypto industry is considered relatively nascent, and it’s frequently stated as still in the early days, meaning that many coins and tokens still have huge potential. Many believe this is somewhat underestimated. In perspective, the total market cap of stocks is $90 trillion, the total market cap of precious metals is $15 trillion, and just the US Dollar is over $20 trillion. The total market cap of crypto is only around $1 trillion, and considering some coins and tokens could someday become serious competitors to stocks, metals, or even national currencies means that crypto still has unprecedented potential. 

This article explores the six steps to achieving crypto’s full potential, how it will achieve this potential, what entities are moving forward, and how significant the returns could be. We’ll look at where we’ve come from and where we are heading and discover the critical component that brings this whole approach together. 

Image source: Finoa.io

Awareness and Education

The first step to achieving crypto's full potential is awareness and education because crypto can only receive investment or achieve adoption if people know about it. It can only receive investment or achieve adoption if people understand how it works and its value. Awareness of and education about crypto needs to be improved, as most of the attention either comes from mainstream media, arguably biased and aligned with the financial establishment, or from misleading advertisements, promotions, and partnerships, often from explicitly pro-crypto entities. 

Much of the education has also come from questionable sources, with most media outlets and influences pushing content purely to get clicks or token allocations. The result is that there is a general shortage of quality information about crypto, but this is improving. People are looking for quality information about crypto, and it’s increasing.

Another reason there’s been a lack of genuine education in crypto until now is that it's often more profitable to do other kinds of crypto content in the short term. It has given cryptocurrency an unfavorable reputation and is especially tough for those genuinely trying to educate others, but this seems to be slowly improving, too.

Some crypto content creators and influencers have taken shortcuts, finding themselves under the scrutiny of the SEC, while other countries have recently enforced strict regulations around crypto marketing.  As concerning as some of these regulations are, they are arguably necessary to ensure that the next wave of crypto content creators and influencers focus on crypto content with long-term value. 

Markethive, an entrepreneurial ecosystem, is a platform at the forefront of this shift as a next-gen crypto media outlet that champions free speech, focusing on genuine crypto content and education. The overall crypto landscape is at the beginning stages. Still, by the time the next crypto bull market hits, the quality of crypto awareness and education will be much higher than it has been, which will set the stage for crypto to reach its full potential. 

Crypto Regulation 

The second step to achieving crypto's full potential is regulation. It ties into the first step because regulators must know about crypto to write reasonable regulations. Institutional investors also need to be aware of and educated about these regulations. As we've seen, regulators worldwide are both aware of and educated about crypto for the most part. This is fortunate or unfortunate, depending on the jurisdiction in question. 

It's becoming clear that some are pushing for pro-crypto regulations while others are pushing for anti-crypto regulations. Believe it or not, any crypto regulation will benefit the crypto market if it doesn't involve an outright ban. This is just because investors, notably institutions, will finally have some guidance about what they can and can't do with crypto in their country. And once these investors and institutions get involved, you can bet that they will lobby to improve crypto regulations to suit their needs better. 

The crypto industry has already been lobbying but with mixed results. By contrast, Fidelity privately lobbied the SEC to approve a spot Bitcoin ETF in September 2021. For context, Fidelity is one of the largest asset managers in the world. It was arguing with an anti-crypto regulator behind closed doors, which is highly bullish. 

In retrospect, it's possible that Fidelity's lobbying is why Black Rock became encouraged to file for a spot Bitcoin ETF in June 2023. More importantly, Fidelity's past lobbying and Black Rock’s present SEC filing suggest that these lobbying efforts will only increase. This will ultimately be a net benefit to the crypto market. 

Institutional Investment

The third step to achieving crypto's full potential is investment from institutions and high-net-worth individuals. Of course, these entities hold most of the world's wealth. This is a consequence of having currencies whose supply is manipulated by people in power. Like all investors, institutions and high-net-worth individuals ultimately want to maximize their returns. As it happens, Bitcoin’s BTC is estimated to be the best-performing asset of all time, from an initial price of $0.09 to all-time highs of over. $69K, BTC has pulled a 760,000X return. 

Image source: Bitcoin’s Price History

Like all assets with such high returns, BTC’s returns will likely diminish over time, but it will still ostensibly outperform most other assets for the foreseeable future. This fundamentally depends on how much BTC we'll see in inflows. Although this is impossible to predict, there is one benchmark to remember; 

BTC is considered by many investors, including Black Rock, to be digital gold. As a result, it's generally believed that BTC’s market cap will someday be similar to that of gold. Now, gold's market cap currently sits at around $13 trillion. BTC's market cap is currently sitting at approximately $500 billion. So, BTC catching up to gold would mean a 26X increase in its price. This would translate to a BTC price of around $670,000. 
Interestingly, BTC’s peak price of $69K put its market cap at around $1.3 trillion, around 10% of gold's total market cap. This assumes that BTC is analogous to digital gold. Some have argued that BTC has additional value since Bitcoin is technically the most secure network in the world. It makes it the ideal base for other ecosystems, including payments, which the likes of the Lightning Network can support. On the topic of payment networks, smart contract cryptocurrencies are the ones that will capture this market share. It means that they could someday displace payment processors and other financial intermediaries. 

The total market cap of these financial intermediaries is over $2 trillion. Given that the market cap of Ethereum’s ETH is currently around $200 billion, matching analogous companies would mean a 10X increase in price. It translates to an ETH price of over $15K, but this likewise assumes that Ethereum is just a payments network; it is obviously much more than that. As such, one could argue that Ethereum is still near the beginning of its adoption curve. 

Crypto Adoption

The fourth step to achieving crypto's full potential is adoption. For reference, it's estimated that less than 5% of the world currently holds crypto. This implies that should more people choose to hold crypto, its price should have excellent upside potential. However, holding crypto is not the same as using crypto. Holding it constitutes investment effectively, whereas using it is actual adoption. 

On-chain data for the largest cryptos suggests there are only a few million daily users, a mere fraction of the world's population. Therefore, potential gains are even more significant than expected by merely extrapolating hodlers. For those unfamiliar, there are ultimately three reasons why people adopt crypto. The first is for profit, the second is for fun, which is very much intertwined with the first reason, and the third is out of necessity. This third reason has resulted in most of the actual crypto adoption. 

For example, 50% of Nigeria's population uses crypto daily, primarily because the government can't be trusted. This phenomenon is not unique to Nigeria; it's an accelerating trend worldwide. Considering that most central banks are currently rolling out Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs), it becomes easy to imagine a world where the average person starts looking for alternatives to a digital currency controlled by institutions they don't trust. 

The demand for such alternatives is already increasing among some governments. The so-called Global South is looking to move away from the US dollar, and some reports suggest that crypto could be a part of their escape plan. Some countries already use crypto for international trade, and Russia is considering mining its own crypto. 

So, just like the adoption process at the individual level, the adoption process at the national level will eventually involve nations and national activities. Using crypto for things like international trade will become more accessible to the average country. At the same time, the tendency to weaponize fiat currencies will be increasing, and this will increase the demand for credibly neutral currencies. Decentralized cryptos like BTC could play a key role. 

Crypto Innovation

Crypto Adoption will ultimately depend on the progress of crypto innovation, the fifth step to achieving crypto’s full potential, particularly around user experience and privacy. Logically, it will be hard for individuals and institutions to adopt crypto in any meaningful way if they need to struggle with hardware wallets. 

Image source: Coursera.org

Significant developments have been on this front, the most notable of which is the gradual merging between hardware and software. It might sound bizarre, but a crypto phone like Solana Saga could solve crypto wallet User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX). It's not just wallets, either. A lot of innovation is happening at the blockchain level. 

For instance, Ethereum’s EIP 4337 upgrade from earlier this year will allow any phone to have crypto phone-type properties, mainly hardware wallet-level security. It will also make it possible to create dApps with no gas fees or, rather, dApps where the user doesn't have to pay the gas fee. 

Constantly checking and accounting for transaction fees is another considerable hurdle to crypto adoption, which many crypto projects attempt to overcome. This will require entirely new approaches, such as charging crypto users monthly subscription fees to use a blockchain rather than charging them for every individual transaction. Of course, some of these approaches will require entirely new types of hardware, like more interactive hardware wallets.

Crypto Privacy

Crypto privacy is another niche to watch out for. Privacy in crypto has been a touchy subject. In one respect, crypto transparency is a huge advantage. At the same time, some degree of privacy is required for financial freedom, and high-net-worth individuals demand it. When it comes to the incessant third hand of government, there's a desire to exploit crypto’s transparency to track transactions and label any crypto privacy attempts as inherently encouraging criminality. 

For the crypto industry, balancing transparency with privacy presents a challenging problem. Zero-knowledge proofs have emerged as one potential solution to this problem, but they come with other problems. The primary one is ensuring that these zero-knowledge technologies don't have secret back doors. Thankfully, this is an issue that can be addressed.

Image Source: Developers:Circle.com

Regardless, the problem of balancing transparency with privacy is closely related to the problem of identity. Countries are pushing for digital IDs, and global regulators want to see these digital IDs integrated with cryptocurrency. The crypto industry has been working on its own supposedly decentralized digital ID solutions; however, these digital ID Solutions are just as centralized as the ones from governments. What's needed is a truly decentralized digital ID. 

There haven’t been any significant developments yet; however, the innovations around wallets and privacy continue rapidly and should be in place by the time the next crypto bull market comes around. This will further facilitate crypto investment and adoption at individual and institutional levels. 


Cryptocurrency's final step to achieve its full potential is complete decentralization. Without decentralization, everything that I just mentioned is off the table. That's because if crypto is centralized, it can be controlled, and if it can be controlled, it'll end up like our existing systems—news flash: Crypto's entire purpose is to replace our current systems with something better, starting with our monetary and financial systems. Naturally, the technology that underlies crypto is compelling. The only way it won't fall into the wrong hands is if it's genuinely decentralized. 

This article illustrates that decentralization means more than having many validators or miners. It means having a decentralized developer base, a decentralized coin or token distribution, a decentralized infrastructure layer, and a decentralized blockchain. Ultimately, this also means having a truly decentralized internet. 

Luckily, the Internet is somewhat decentralized and will likely become more decentralized as peer-to-peer Internet crypto projects like Helium see more investment and adoption. This also pertains to Markethive as it strives to decouple from all centralized entities prevailing as a tour de force in its next-gen social market broadcasting media niche. This adoption is necessary due to internet censorship

Currently, most cryptocurrencies are arguably not decentralized enough to evade control. It stands to reason, then, that these cryptocurrencies will not be the ones that make it. In other words, if you hold centralized cryptos, you're not early; you're late, very late. That said, this depends on whether the centralized cryptos you currently hold can become decentralized. To figure this out, you must ask one question: Is this crypto capable of building its own infrastructure and ecosystem without relying on a single set of individuals or institutions? 

Image Source: X – The DeFi Edge

Crypto Funding

The answer for most cryptos is no; however, that's not entirely their fault. One perspective is that one of the primary reasons why so many cryptos are so centralized is because of funding. Early investors in crypto projects want to see returns and often try to control the project to that end. This incentivizes crypto projects to cut corners on decentralization to ensure their investors are quickly rewarded. As we've seen, these so-called VC coins have seen the most aggressive pump-and-dump cycles, and most of them probably won't last past the next crypto cycle. 

The silver lining to this situation is that it fully displays the solution to the crypto centralization problem. The crypto industry needs to find a way to fund crypto projects in a more decentralized manner. 

Image by Markethive.com

Decentralization of Social Market Networks

Markethive is the ecosystem for entrepreneurs and a crypto project with the solution to top-level control issues, whether it be funding or the systems driving it. It is a decentralized, limited AI-secured rating and reputation system that is self-policing and a Human Intelligence (HI) that fosters a healthy level of meritocratic interaction. The community solely funds it with no prominent venture capitalists. The people are building it; it is of the people and for the people, so the community will profit, sharing the prosperity and abundance of every level of humanity.

It also creates a breeding ground for positive, creative, and beneficial content in which people's minds are prompted toward positive growth and critical thinking. Markethive is beyond its crypto wallet and Hivecoin release milestones, disengaging unreliable APIs and implementing multiple servers in preparation for its mining hives that give peace of mind—making it an impenetrable fortress against what has become a jungle, and a cesspool of fraud, scams, data harvesting, political bias, and dystopia. 

This divinely inspired project is all part of the Web 3 or 3rd generation Internet, which has emerged as a movement away from the centralization of services. Markethive is here for the rank and file with entrepreneurial aspirations at little to no cost to join. The all-encompassing social market broadcasting network delivers financial sovereignty, freedom of expression, privacy, and autonomy. We have entered into the much-needed world of decentralization, where the cancel culture is no longer an existential threat.  

At the time of writing this article, we are perfectly positioned to take advantage of the opportunities that are coming. Markethive, with its Hivecoin (HVC), will be poised for the next crypto bull run and participate in the facilitation of crypto achieving its full potential, where we’ll see HVC firmly established as a coin with purpose and utility in the free market. Do you want to be part of the decentralization revolution? Today, become an ‘Entrepreneur One’ and reap the rewards of Markethive’s ILP and revenue returns.  

May God bless and uphold you for all eternity…



Editor and Chief Markethive: Deb Williams. (Australia) I thrive on progress and champion freedom of speech. I embrace "Change" with a passion, and my purpose in life is to enlighten people to accept and move forward with enthusiasm. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.






Tim Moseley

The Dark Secrets Behind Crypto Market Manipulation

The Dark Secrets Behind Crypto Market Manipulation

Cryptocurrencies have been at the center of extensive debates in recent years, with much of the discussion revolving around their value and regulatory aspects. However, there is a pressing need to delve into the issue of market manipulation, with a particular focus on the behavior of cryptocurrency exchanges.

The spotlight on crypto and market abuse intensified in late 2022 following the collapse of FTX. This exchange, which had, at one point, held the position of the world's third-largest cryptocurrency exchange by trading volume during its three-year existence, experienced a dramatic downfall. Its founder and CEO, Sam Bankman-Fried, now faces a series of serious charges, including conspiracy to commit commodities and securities fraud and conspiracy to defraud the United States and engage in campaign finance violations. These charges stem from allegations that Bankman-Fried defrauded investors about $1.8 billion. FTX has been entangled in Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings in the United States since November of last year.

The high-profile and large-scale nature of FTX's collapse has triggered a wave of inquiries into the functioning of cryptocurrency exchanges and the risks associated with market manipulation. It's important to note that market manipulation is not a phenomenon exclusive to crypto exchanges; it's an illicit practice in the financial markets with a historical presence dating back centuries.

In the ever-evolving world of cryptocurrency, a question that looms large in the minds of new investors and enthusiasts alike is whether the crypto markets are manipulated. The topic has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, with proponents on both sides presenting their arguments. In this article, we aim to shed light on this intriguing issue, examining the various factors and evidence that contribute to the perception that the crypto markets are indeed manipulated.

Source: Solidus Labs

Insights from the Solidus Labs Report

Before delving into the specifics of market manipulation, it's essential to understand the context in which the crypto markets operate. Cryptocurrency, most notably Bitcoin, has gained unprecedented popularity and attention in recent years. Its decentralized nature and the potential for substantial financial gains have attracted investors from all walks of life. With the total market capitalization of cryptocurrencies reaching astronomical heights, it's no wonder that questions about manipulation have arisen.

It's important to understand the key findings of a recent report by Solidus Labs, a crypto research firm. The report, aptly titled "The 2023 Crypto Market Manipulation Report," was published by Solidus Labs in June. Although some time has passed since its publication, the facts and figures remain largely relevant.

The report is divided into two main sections: insider trading and wash trading. Insider trading involves individuals with privileged information trading to their advantage. The report highlights the significance of addressing market manipulation to foster crypto adoption, especially considering the ongoing discussions about exchange-traded funds (ETFs) in the crypto space. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has been hesitant to approve crypto ETFs due to concerns about market manipulation. While the report acknowledges that the issue may be up for debate when it comes to Bitcoin (BTC), it suggests that most altcoins are susceptible to manipulation.

The report identifies a startling statistic: 56% of ERC-20 tokens listed on crypto exchanges in 2021 showed evidence of insider trading, even on major exchanges. The authors of the report discovered a network of 51 interconnected wallets believed to be responsible for a significant portion of this insider trading activity. Unfortunately, the report does not specify which exchanges were analyzed, leaving some details unclear.

Insider trading, as defined by the report, includes any wallet that consistently buys a token shortly before it is listed on a major exchange. Surprisingly, the subsequent insider trading often occurred on decentralized exchanges (DEXs) rather than centralized exchanges (CEXs). However, only a few cases involved insiders selling their tokens on the exchanges where the tokens were listed. This might be attributed to fears of detection by insider trading detection mechanisms on these exchanges.

A case study in the report highlights one individual or entity involved in insider trading who conducted 14 listings using DEXs and 22 more using CEXs. Interestingly, the gains from this insider trading activity were not as substantial as one might expect, with an estimated profit of $300,000 against an investment of $2.7 million. This suggests that the individual or entity involved likely possessed substantial financial resources, potentially indicating an institution or a seasoned actor in the crypto space.

Another noteworthy discovery in the report was the identification of 54 additional wallets created specifically for insider trading. These wallets were found to be associated with transactions related to tokens about to be listed or newly listed tokens. The entities behind these wallets used various methods to obscure their activities, including privacy protocols like Tornado Cash, smart contract-enabled privacy coins like Secret Network, and crypto exchanges with lax Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements.

Source: Solidus Labs

The report also raises the possibility that crypto exchanges themselves might be involved in insider trading, a serious allegation that has been made against some exchanges in the past. The authors acknowledge that some of the wallets identified may have been purely coincidental, but the overall pattern suggests insider trading. They speculate that token issuers, market makers, and investment firms could be the entities behind these wallets.

Moving on to the section of the report focusing on wash trading, it reveals some eye-opening statistics. Since 2020, liquidity providers on Ethereum have engaged in wash trading involving over $2 billion worth of cryptocurrencies. This behavior was identified in 20,000 tokens, taking place in 67% of the over 30,000 liquidity pools analyzed. Wash trades accounted for an average of nearly 15% of trading activity in these pools.

Wash trading is a form of market manipulation where an entity simultaneously buys and sells the same asset, creating a deceptive impression of market activity while no actual change in ownership occurs. Notably, the authors believe that the extent of wash trading on DEXs on Ethereum is even higher, but the reported data only covers 1% of the analyzed information.

The report further suggests that wash trading is detectable and preventable in the decentralized finance (DeFi) space. It argues that DeFi protocols could implement similar regulatory measures as centralized exchanges to combat wash trading. Additionally, on-chain analysis can help identify suspicious liquidity providers.

Source: Wash trading in centralized crypto exchanges – Cepr.org

So, what does all of this mean for the crypto industry? The short answer is that these revelations are not good news for DEXs. However, it's worth noting that the report appears to focus exclusively on insider trading and wash trading on DEXs, whereas similar issues have been found on CEXs, with fake trading volumes being a significant concern.

Transparency is a critical factor in regulating market manipulation, and DEXs, with their publicly viewable and traceable transactions, have the potential to be more transparent and less prone to manipulation than centralized exchanges. DeFi protocols are also exploring ways to implement regulatory measures at the smart contract level.

While market manipulation is a challenge that the crypto industry must address, it is a problem that can be tackled with the right tools and regulations. DEXs are gradually working towards mitigating this issue, and their transparency can serve as a model for the broader crypto ecosystem. However, the crypto industry must also confront larger issues, including centralization, privacy concerns, and censorship resistance. As blockchain analytics companies like Solidus Labs lead the way in addressing market manipulation, the industry can move forward with greater transparency and accountability.

Ultimately, market manipulation is one of the more solvable issues in the crypto space, and once it is effectively addressed, attention can be directed towards other critical challenges facing the industry.


The debate over whether the cryptocurrency markets are susceptible to manipulation continues to persist, and while no definitive consensus has been reached, there are indeed compelling reasons to consider the possibility of manipulation within these markets. Several factors contribute to this perception, shedding light on why investors remain cautious when participating in the crypto space.

First and foremost, the absence of comprehensive regulatory oversight is a fundamental concern. Unlike traditional financial markets that operate under strict regulatory frameworks enforced by government authorities, cryptocurrency markets exist in an unclear regulatory landscape. This regulatory void creates an environment in which individuals or entities may exploit loopholes and engage in illicit practices without fear of legal repercussions. This lack of oversight can significantly contribute to the perception of vulnerability to manipulation.

Another prominent factor that reinforces the perception of market manipulation is the prevalence of "pump and dump" schemes. These schemes involve artificially inflating the price of a cryptocurrency through coordinated buying, often based on misleading or exaggerated information. Once the price reaches its zenith, those orchestrating the scheme sell their holdings at a profit, resulting in a swift and severe decline in price. These schemes not only deceive investors but also erode trust in the integrity of the market.

The influence of crypto whales, individuals or entities holding substantial amounts of a specific cryptocurrency, is another element contributing to the perception of manipulation. These whales possess the capacity to sway market sentiment and price movements through their significant trades. A single large sell order from a whale can trigger panic selling among smaller investors, leading to rapid price fluctuations. This unequal distribution of power can lead to a sense of vulnerability among market participants.

Furthermore, the lack of transparency on many cryptocurrency exchanges adds to the perception of potential manipulation. Some exchanges do not provide adequate information about their operations, trading volumes, or even the identity of their owners. This opacity can raise suspicions about the fairness and integrity of these platforms, further fueling concerns about market manipulation.

In light of these factors, it is prudent for investors in the cryptocurrency space to exercise caution and diligence. Conducting thorough research and due diligence before participating in any cryptocurrency investment is essential. Being aware of the risks associated with market manipulation and staying informed about the latest developments in the industry can help investors make more informed decisions and protect their interests.

While the cryptocurrency market offers exciting opportunities, it is not without its challenges. Acknowledging the existence of potential manipulation and taking proactive measures to mitigate these risks is a crucial step for investors looking to navigate this dynamic and evolving landscape successfully.

This article is provided for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as legal, tax, investment, financial, or other advice.



About: Prince Ibenne. (Nigeria) Prince is passionate about helping people understand the crypto-verse through his easily digestible articles. He is an enthusiastic supporter of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.





Tim Moseley

Central Banks Concerns About Rising Crypto Adoption Report Paradoxically Depicts Bullish Outcome For Crypto

Central Banks Concerns About Rising Crypto Adoption. Report Paradoxically Depicts Bullish Outcome For Crypto

Crypto adoption is on the rise, and it may well be argued that the central banks don't like that fact. Recently, the BIS, monikered as the so-called ‘Bank for Central Banks,’ published a report claiming that crypto adoption causes financial instability in developing countries, where adoption is happening the most. 

Central banks of the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and other major Latin American countries conducted the report. Their concerns about crypto adoption paint a surprisingly bullish picture. This article provides an overview of this report, explains the significance of what's being said, and tells you what it could mean for the crypto market.

The report summarized here is titled “Financial Stability Risks from Crypto Assets in Emerging Market Economies.” It was published by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in August 2023. The report begins with a foreword that analyzes crypto adoption in developing countries. It includes recommendations on how to keep crypto under control. 

Source: Cointelegraph

BIS member central banks of Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States wrote the report. The representatives set up a task force led by the BIS Americas Office as the secretariat. It seems to claim that crypto adoption in developing countries is high because these countries generally have low financial literacy. This starkly contrasts with a recent study by a U.S. university, which found that crypto adoption actually increases financial literacy. This makes sense, considering that you must understand crypto before adopting it. 

About The Report

The report's first section provides a summary of the key findings. The authors are hyper-focused on the rise and fall of the crypto market. They don't seem to care about why people are adopting crypto but simultaneously acknowledge the reasons why. For example, As quoted, “Proponents of crypto assets claim that they offer lower transaction costs, faster payments, no intermediation, anonymity, and potentially high returns on investment. Whether they deliver on these claims is another matter.” 

The second part is surprising, as they refuse to argue against it. Moreover, it states, “For some users, crypto assets provide an alternative to limited investments and savings instruments, while for others, they offer a seemingly safe haven against volatile domestic currencies.” 

Now, this conflicts with what the authors implied in the forward. They know those adopting crypto are informed. In other words, they know exactly why people in developing countries embrace crypto; because their fiat currencies suck. Instead of addressing these shortcomings, the authors essentially conclude that something must be done to keep crypto under control because of supposed financial stability risks. 

The authors then highlight several risks, in particular, market risks due to volatility, liquidity risks due to a lack of transparency, credit risks due to a lack of governance, AKA control, operational risks due to cyberattacks, currency substitution risks, and capital flow risks, due to crypto’s use in cross-border payments. 

The irony is that many assets are more volatile than crypto. The existing financial system is even less transparent than the crypto industry, traditional finance (TradFi) has exponentially more credit risk than decentralized finance (DeFi), and cryptos are more resilient to cyber-attacks because they're more exposed; they are literally tested every day. This underscores the fact that the only risks the authors are concerned about are currency substitution and capital flows. 

To address these risks, they claim that “Authorities can consider selective bans, containment, and regulation,” a classic starting point for these BIS reports. For those interested, here is a summary of another crazy BIS report from last year.

The report begins with an introduction where the authors explain cryptos and how they work. They then divide crypto into two categories for their analysis: stablecoins and unbacked crypto assets, which means everything else: Bitcoin, Ethereum, et al. For context, central banks hate stablecoins, probably because they’re direct competitors to Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs). Interestingly, governments seem to like stablecoins because they're backed by government debt. This means they can use stablecoins to subsidize their spending. 

The authors explain that this report builds on recent work by the Financial Stability Board (FSB), a subsidiary of the BIS. Notably, the FSB’s crypto recommendations become regulations in its member countries, namely the G20. The work the BIS is building on is a crypto framework put together by the FSB, which can be seen in the image below. This infographic is ironic because it notes that stability risks only flow from crypto to TradFi. As we've seen with the banking crisis, the stability risks come from TradFi, not crypto.

Source: BIS Papers: Financial stability risks from crypto assets in emerging market economies.pdf

Before breaking down the alleged risks crypto poses to TradFi, the authors make another eye-opening claim, 

“The crypto universe was built on the promise of an efficient, decentralized, low-cost, inclusive, safe and open monetary system, but structural vulnerabilities in the design and operation of crypto asset markets make them unsuitable as the basis for a monetary system.” 

The key word here is ‘monetary’; the central banks oversee the monetary side of the financial system. In practical terms, this means raising or lowering interest rates through various mechanisms to affect the amount of currency in circulation. It's clear that they do not want to lose control of this ability. 

The Alleged Risks

Market Risk
As stated above, the first crypto risk is market risk. Firstly, the authors implied that publicly traded crypto companies are inherently risky. They also take issue with the fact that some cryptos are held mainly by a handful of wallets. They provide some fascinating statistics to back up their claims, 

“In 2020, an estimated 10,000 individuals owned about a quarter of all outstanding Bitcoin. Satoshi Nakamoto, the anonymous creator of Bitcoin, is the largest holder, with more than 1 million stored in different wallets (around 5% of the total). Other tokens show similar concentration. For example, fewer than 100 participants control over 51% of the value in Dogecoin, ZCash, and Ethereum Classic.”

So, at first glance, these statistics are concerning, but it's easy to forget that there's even more extreme wealth concentration in other asset classes. It exemplifies the top 1% reportedly earned more than the rest of the world combined over the last two years. Why isn't the BIS raising this point? 

The second thing worth noting is that most of the authors' concerns around market stability are directed at stablecoins, which should come as no surprise, given that they are competitors to CBDCs, as mentioned earlier. 

Source: Bitcoin Treasuries 

What is surprising is that the authors also target spot Bitcoin ETFs, quoting, “Bitcoin ETFs could potentially pose a market risk in emerging market economies (EMEs) by lowering the barriers to entry for less sophisticated investors and increasing investors' direct and indirect exposure to crypto assets.” 

Oddly enough, the authors are concerned about the wealth concentration Bitcoin ETFs could cause. Here are a few more statistics; “As of end-March 2023, ETFs owned a combined 819,125 BTC, 3.9% of the total bitcoins to be issued (21 million). The largest Bitcoin ETF is Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (GBTC), which owns 643,572 BTC, or nearly 3% of the total supply. In total, ETFs, governments, and public and private companies own more than 1.6 million BTC, approximately 7.8% of the total supply.”

Source: Bitcoin Treasuries 

Liquidity risk
The second crypto risk is liquidity risk. The authors note that most of crypto’s trading volume occurs on offshore exchanges such as Binance. What's odd is that they include Huobi Global as one of the top crypto exchanges and a potential point of concern when it's no longer that large.


Source: Coinmarketcap.com

Oddities aside, the authors also aim for Tether and allege that its USDT stablecoin is still insufficiently backed. They missed the memo that USDT is now backed almost entirely by US Government debt, like all the other major stablecoins. It appears that the BIS is making arguments using outdated data. 

Anyhow, there’s something else that the authors point out, which is quite essential: money market funds were a significant source of market instability in 2008 and 2020. For those unfamiliar, money market funds are kind of like TradFi stablecoins. The difference is that you earn a yield on them. 

Naturally, the authors note that stablecoins are similar and that if they were to experience a run, this could create problems for the assets that back these stablecoins, namely government debt. The thing is that most money market funds are significantly more extensive than most stablecoins and, therefore, riskier. 

Credit Risk
In any case, the third is credit risk. The authors define credit risk in the context of crypto as “The potential that a counterparty in crypto-asset markets or directly exposed to crypto assets could fail to meet its obligations in accordance with agreed terms.”

Areas of concern include interconnectedness between crypto companies, citing FTX and Alameda Research. Also, lack of governance and disclosures, quoting DAOs and leverage, citing DeFi. They also included crypto exchanges having access to bank accounts, citing Chilean authorities, who forced banks to bank crypto exchanges. 

Despite favorable crypto regulations, crypto companies and projects in pro-crypto jurisdictions still have difficulty opening bank accounts. This is likely due to the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), but this pressure could be from the central banks.

Operational Risk
Regardless, the fourth crypto risk is operational risk. The authors take issue with the fact that cryptos use blockchains, quoting, “One of the key features of blockchain technology is its irreversibility. Once a transaction is recorded on the blockchain, it cannot be undone. This feature can be problematic in situations where transactions need to be reversed, such as in the case of a hack or fraud.” 

News flash: If crypto transactions could be reversed, then there would be no point in having crypto because governments, central banks, and Wall Street could manipulate it. Just like they do with money and other assets. In case it wasn't clear enough, they want to be able to do this with crypto, too. 

Disintermediation Risk
The fifth crypto risk is bank disintermediation risk. This includes both currency substitution and reserve currency substitution, which are significant concerns for the central banks. The authors admit that crypto could “..reduce the monetary authority’s control over liquidity in the economy, thus weakening the effectiveness of monetary policy…” 

The authors reiterate why people would substitute their fiat currencies with crypto. These reasons included not trusting the fiat currency, crypto being more efficient than fiat, and crypto being more private than fiat, which isn't accurate, at least in the case of cash. 

The reserve currency substitution section is where things get seriously bullish for crypto. They quote, “…if crypto assets become mainstream, they could also replace the global reserve currency as a perceived store of value…” The report denotes this substitution process as cryptoization 2.0. Put simply, the authors speculate that crypto could compete with reserve currencies, like the US dollar, if they see enough adoption.

The caveat is that they're saying this in the context of developing countries, where they think crypto will be used to evade capital controls. Even so, this pertains to something speculated about in a previous article about the BRICS countries.  It’s possible they could adopt a cryptocurrency as their common currency. The fact that BRICS’s current and future members fit the profile of the countries described in this BIS report underscores this possibility. 

Capital Flow Risk
The final crypto risk is capital flow risk, another big concern for the central banks. That's because crypto allows people to move their money around without asking for permission from Big Brother; that's not allowed in the modern financial system. The report’s authors are frustrated about the fact, quoting, 

“Crypto assets can operate offshore and hence beyond regulatory oversight. Crypto assets can be traded and stored on a global network of computers, often offshore servers and digital wallets, making it possible for them to operate beyond the jurisdiction of any one country.”

They're also upset that, quote, “…a person can create a digital wallet on a computer or mobile device and store crypto assets in it, without having to go through any formal registration process or identity verification.” Note that they want to connect all crypto wallets to digital IDs eventually. 

To drive the point home about crypto capital flows being a risk, the authors provide another statistic, saying: “One of the biggest Mexican crypto exchanges claimed that in the first half of 2022, it processed remittances for $1 billion in crypto assets, approximately 3.6% of the total flow in that period.” This is bullish for crypto.

Crypto Risk Connection To TradFi

This begs the question of how these crypto risks could spill into the traditional financial system. The third part of the report has all the answers from the perspective of the BIS. These are summarized in a single infographic (below) that shows the connection between crypto and TradFi. These include crypto to fiat, on and off ramps, stablecoins backed by government debt, etc. 

Source: BIS Papers: Financial stability risks from crypto assets in emerging market economies.pdf

What's crazy is that the authors suggest that even if crypto risks don't spill over into TradFi directly, they could spill over indirectly. The report states, 

“Disruptions in the cryptoasset market can potentially spill over to other financial markets through confidence effects. For example, a sharp drop in the value of crypto assets could erode investor risk appetite. This could lead to outflows from the traditional financial system and tighten financial conditions.”

Put differently, if the crypto markets crash, this could spook investors in TradFi, and that would cause issues; therefore, crypto must be regulated, contained, banned, etc.; it’s madness. It also makes no sense because the opposite is true; stocks influence crypto’s price action, not vice versa. 

Crypto Adoption In Developing Countries

All of these allegations about crypto risks could be intended to prime the reader for the fourth section, which is crypto adoption in developing countries. After all, if they believe crypto is so risky and harmful, they will need to ensure those unfortunate folks in the global South are extra protected. Quips aside, the authors detail four so-called risk catalysts for developing countries regarding crypto. 

  1. Crypto adoption
  2. Inflation and a lack of central bank credibility
  3. Lack of payment infrastructure and financial literacy (Arguably not true)
  4. A lack of crypto regulation (or rather, the lack of anti-crypto regulation that central banks want to see)

Recommendations For Controlling Crypto

Following a lengthy overview of all the crypto regulations in select North and South American countries, the authors provide recommendations about controlling crypto in the fifth part of the report. They start by saying that there are three approaches to managing crypto: bans, containment, and regulation. 

They say that many authorities have argued that crypto should not be regulated because regulations would give the industry a seal of approval that could lead to more adoption. Regulations mean institutions and institutions represent lobbying for better regulations. Believe it or not, the authors aren't in favor of a crypto ban because it would mean no oversight of crypto. They also do not favor containment, i.e., keeping crypto separate from the financial system, because they know secret connections would inevitably manifest. 

So, the one option remaining is to regulate crypto, specifically with the same risk and regulation principle. If you've read this article about crypto regulations, you'll know that this principle could turn crypto into another arm of the existing financial system, which would defeat its purpose. One of the entities pushing this principle the hardest has been the World Economic Forum (WEF), which the authors cite many times in this report. 

For developing countries specifically, the authors recommend they get their monetary business in order so that there's no incentive for crypto adoption. Indeed, if the central banks and governments manage their currencies properly, crypto probably wouldn't exist because it wouldn't need to exist. They only have themselves to blame at the end of the day, and with a bit of luck, crypto will force them to be somewhat more responsible going forward. 

What Does It Mean For Crypto?

What does all of this mean for the crypto market? In short, it's very bullish. The central banks are aware that crypto adoption is growing fast and is ultimately due to deficiencies in the existing financial system, which they know they probably can't fix. These deficiencies are especially acute in developing countries, and for good reason. 

The US dollar is the world's reserve currency, and it's used in up to 96% of international trade in some regions. Unless a country has many resources, it has difficulty getting its hands on US dollars. These countries can only get US dollars by requesting an IMF or World Bank loan. These loans come with many conditions, which are typically in favor of the US and US-based corporations. 

Now, the consequence of this is that these indebted developing countries just can't get ahead. As pointed out by macro analyst Lyn Alden, only a handful of developing countries have managed to become developed over the last 50 years. For the ones that manage, it was due to their natural resources, especially oil. Some of the only exceptions are South Korea and Taiwan,  both of which have received significant support from the US over the decades, probably for geo-political purposes. 

The rest of the developing world has been stuck in the same place, sometimes worse, and they're starting to understand why. Consider that even the BIS referred to "The global reserve currency in their cryptoization 2.0 prediction.” The keyword is ‘The’一it's singular. Logically, it's a reference to the US Dollar.  Assuming it is and probably is, the BIS’s cryptoization quote reads: "If cryptocurrencies achieve mainstream adoption, they could replace the US dollar as the world's reserve currency.” 

Now consider that this is something that many central banks could be interested in; remember that the BRICS are a thing. This would explain the somewhat paradoxical conclusions of the BIS report, which is to regulate crypto even though they know that it will inevitably result in more crypto adoption. 

When you combine this conclusion with the fact that the BIS will allow central banks to hold up to 2% of their balance sheets in crypto starting in 2025, you begin to realize that some central banks might be breaking ranks. In fact, it's possible they're all breaking ranks except the Federal Reserve. That would be truly something, wouldn't it? 




Editor and Chief Markethive: Deb Williams. (Australia) I thrive on progress and champion freedom of speech. I embrace "Change" with a passion, and my purpose in life is to enlighten people to accept and move forward with enthusiasm. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.





Tim Moseley

Cryptocurrencys Rise in Cuba: Hope Shines in Tough Economical Waters

Cryptocurrency's Rise in Cuba: Hope Shines in Tough Economical Waters

For many years, Cuba has faced serious economic challenges that have deeply affected the daily lives of its people. These challenges include trade restrictions, shortages of basic goods, and a lack of foreign investment. However, amidst these difficulties, Bitcoin offers a glimmer of hope to Cubans.

Although Bitcoin is still relatively new in Cuba, it's slowly gaining popularity among the population. One significant reason for this is Cuba's unique dual currency system, which has made Bitcoin an appealing alternative to traditional financial systems. Additionally, more Cubans are turning to Bitcoin to receive remittances from family members living abroad, further solidifying its role in their daily lives.

The increasing use of Bitcoin has sparked optimism that it could help revitalize Cuba's economy and empower its people. This digital currency holds the potential to bring about economic resilience and financial independence for Cubans. In this article, we'll explore the growing adoption of Bitcoin in Cuba and its potential to shape a brighter economic future for the nation. Join us as we uncover how a digital currency is influencing the destiny of an island nation in pursuit of better economic prospects.

Image source: Dialogo Americas

The Evolution of Cuba’s Economy

Cuba currently faces one of its most severe economic crises since the early 1990s, a period characterized by the collapse of the Soviet Union, which had been the primary source of support for the island nation. During this era, Fidel Castro, the enduring dictator, called upon citizens to unite and endure what he termed a "special period." It was marked by food shortages, frequent blackouts, a significant exodus of Cubans to Florida on perilous rafts, and a devastating devaluation of the Cuban peso, pegged to the Soviet ruble. Between 1991 and 1994, Cuba's economy contracted by a staggering 35%, resulting in a substantial decline in the people's quality of life.

The summer of 1994 witnessed the Maleconazo uprising, a notable anti-government protest in Havana fueled by the failure of the state's ration system, which depended heavily on Soviet support. Essential goods suddenly became accessible only through the use of dollars, a currency increasingly elusive for Cubans with peso-based incomes. In a desperate bid to sustain its faltering economy, the regime abandoned its collectivist principles and imposed unprecedented taxes on the population. In response, tens of thousands of protestors converged along the Malecon waterfront, demanding an end to the government's rule.

During this period, the internet was non-existent, allowing the regime to suppress the movement through brutal police tactics, ensuring that most Cubans remained unaware of the scale of the protests. State-controlled media dismissed the events as a small gathering of delinquents and troublemakers. In reality, the Maleconazo represented a significant display of dissent, the most substantial since the Cuban Revolution in 1959.

Fast forward to today, and Cubans are again referring to a new "Special Period." This time, it is driven by currency reforms and decades of frustration stemming from political repression and bureaucracy. Shortages, frequent power outages, rampant inflation, and widespread protests mark the outcome. The key difference today is the presence of mobile phones and internet access, which keeps the world informed about the situation. On July 11, 2023, Cuba experienced its largest anti-government protest since 1959 in Havana and across cities nationwide.

Cuba, with its scorching climate, grapples with daily electricity shortages. Essential food items like beef, fish, chicken, and eggs are scarce or unobtainable. Obtaining necessities such as food, medicine, and sanitation supplies has become a daily challenge. The power grid is in disarray, and the healthcare system is on the brink of collapse. Oxygen and fans are in short supply, and an increasing number of elderly citizens are losing their lives. At the heart of the government's failures and the unprecedented uprising of its citizens lies a financial crisis.

In January, the Communist Party of Cuba initiated a "monetary purification" process. Since 1994, the government has been issuing two types of currencies: the CUP (Cuban peso), pegged to the dollar at a rate of 24:1, and the CUC (Cuban convertible peso), pegged at 1:1 to the dollar.

While public sector salaries and pensions were paid in pesos, citizens needed CUCs to purchase essential items such as medicine, non-basic foods, clothing, cleaning supplies, and electronics. The regime designed this system to drain value from the population by selling CUCs for 25 pesos at state-run money exchanges (cadecas) while repurchasing them at 24 pesos. 

The government understood that it had to continually print and inflate pesos to sustain its centrally planned economy, even as the agricultural and industrial sectors collapsed. This dual-currency system maintained the purchasing power of the elite and well-connected while creating an economic disparity.

This system created a stark contrast where state employees, including teachers, police officers, and healthcare workers, were at a severe economic disadvantage compared to those involved in the tourist industry, such as waitstaff and taxi drivers.

As of January 1, 2021, the CUC was officially phased out, and Cubans were given six months to exchange their CUCs for pesos at the official exchange rate. This transition effectively robbed Cubans of their hard-earned CUCs, as they were forced to exchange them for rapidly depreciating pesos. Even before January, CUCs traded at a 15% discount to the dollar.

The government extended the window for Cubans to redeem CUCs for a few additional months. Still, usage has dwindled, replaced primarily by the MLC (moneda libremente convertible, or "freely convertible currency"). Introduced by the regime in 2019 as the future monetary system of the island, the MLC operates like a reusable gift card. A plastic MLC card is available at banks, along with two mobile apps for transactions. However, MLC lacks banknotes, coins, or interest-earning capabilities. Its functionality primarily revolves around Cubans receiving hard currency from contacts abroad, which the regime confiscates, replacing it with MLC credit for citizens to spend at government-run stores.

In a cruel irony, Cubans, who are predominantly paid or pensioned in pesos, cannot purchase MLC with their own currency. To officially top up their MLC accounts, they must use foreign hard currency, often sent by family or contacts abroad. Initially, this could be done with dollars, but due to the Trump administration's crackdown on remittances to Cuba, MLC is now mainly acquired through pounds, euros, and Canadian dollars.

Building upon a trend that began 25 years ago when better goods were only available in dollar stores, today's MLC stores are essentially the sole source of quality food, medicine, cleaning supplies, appliances, and other essentials. Peso stores regularly face shortages and offer limited and low-quality products. Cubans with family abroad can obtain MLC top-ups and purchase necessities to sustain their lives. In contrast, those without such connections must resort to the black market to acquire MLC, where the exchange rate is approximately 65 pesos for one MLC.

The Cuban regime effectively prints pesos through the MLC system to acquire hard currency. It's a massive deception perpetrated on the Cuban population and a major driving force behind the historic protests we witness in Cuba.

Image source: Crypto News

Finding Freedom Through Bitcoin

Bitcoin, a symbol of freedom and a reminder of American liberty, traces its origins back to the American Revolution. It was born out of a desire to break free from Britain's control of war and monarchy.
Now, let's jump to 2023, where a new kind of tyranny is on the horizon in every part of the world. Bitcoin offers us an opportunity to escape the control of central bankers, a chance to choose a different path. Its popularity is growing to the point where these financial authorities can no longer maintain their grip. This isn't just about changing our monetary system; it's about reclaiming control, securing financial freedom, and building generational wealth.

Cuba has a history of rebels and resilient spirits. Brave individuals who resisted the iron grip of the Castro regime are now at the forefront of a different kind of revolution—Bitcoin. In the past, talking about Bitcoin in Cuba had to be done secretly. Today, it's open, a topic of discussion, and offers hope through the Lightning Network

In a country where the once-powerful peso has become nearly worthless, Bitcoin provides a lifeline. The average salary in Cuba is barely enough to survive on. When the cost of coffee beans for your morning espresso exceeds a Cuban's monthly wage, something is seriously wrong. Bitcoin offers a way out, a path to a better future.

Bitcoin transactions in Cuba occur through Telegram groups and the Lightning Network. They're nearly feeless and shrouded in secrecy to avoid government scrutiny. Traditional institutions have failed the Cuban people, but they've found new hope in Bitcoin. It's a way to preserve their energy, wealth, and hard-earned money over time.

For many Cuban businesses struggling to pay foreign suppliers, Bitcoin is the solution. It's a lifeline for acquiring essential goods that Cuban pesos or MLCs cannot buy. Bitcoin's presence is everywhere, from the heart of Havana to the bustling streets of Santiago. It's a revolution, a declaration, and a defiant response to a history of tyranny, oppression, hyperinflation, and despair.

Historical revolutions were led by visionaries but driven by the courageous. In modern-day Cuba, that courage is reflected in satoshis stored in Bitcoin wallets—a dream of an unburdened and unrestrained Cuba. Cuba is embracing Bitcoin wholeheartedly, educating its people, and making it a part of their future. They understand that in the long run, Bitcoin will remain while the Cuban peso may not.

The Cuban Bitcoin community is growing, and Bitcoin is their symbol of hope. They don't worry about market ups and downs; they worry about the survival of the Cuban peso. Bitcoin is their lifeline and their path to financial freedom. In this quest for freedom and defiance, we salute the rebels, the dreamers, and the trailblazers. The Bitcoin Revolution is here, and it won't wait for anyone. Join in or step aside.

Image source: CNBC 

A New Era Dawns in Cuba

Much like other closed regimes such as North Korea and the Soviet Union, Cuba is experiencing a profound transformation thanks to technology and access to outside information. The nationwide protest movement on July 11 wouldn't have been possible without the digital tools that enable people to organize and connect.
In Cuba, the internet is dismantling the consensus held by the ruling elites, who rely on controlling information. If the internet continues to thrive in Cuba, it could eventually lead to the fall of the Cuban government. However, despite nearly two decades of economic reforms and half a decade of an increasingly connected population, the Cuban communist party maintains its grip on power.

The government's resistance to change and its conservative nature have helped it endure for decades. While Bitcoin offers a way for the government to accumulate the world's hardest currency, those in charge may not consider it a risk worth taking. On the U.S. front, the Biden administration is reviewing remittances to Cuba to find ways for people in the U.S. to send money to their families on the island without supporting the regime.

During the recent turbulent weeks, one thing has become evident: a growing number of Cubans are no longer willing to wait for their government to implement reforms or for the Biden administration to ease sanctions. They are taking control of their financial destinies through Bitcoin.

While the current political protests may demonstrate that Cubans are weary of dictatorship, they might not be enough to bring down the regime. Many have predicted the fall of the Castro regime over the decades, only to be proven wrong. In the meantime, Cubans will continue their peaceful protest by opting out of the exploitative peso and MLC systems and embracing Bitcoin. After six decades of economic hardship, they have finally found a way out. Bitcoin has become a quintessential Cuban movement and a solution that appears unlikely to be halted.


As Cuba grapples with a severe economic crisis and restricted access to traditional financial systems, the emergence of Bitcoin provides a beacon of hope for the nation's future prosperity. Adopting this decentralized cryptocurrency opens up a world of possibilities for Cubans to explore alternative monetary solutions and seize control of their financial destinies.

In a landscape marked by trade embargoes, commodity shortages, and limited foreign investment, Bitcoin represents a lifeline to economic resilience. Its borderless nature transcends the constraints of traditional banking, offering Cubans a pathway to financial empowerment. By embracing Bitcoin, they can break free from the shackles of economic instability that have persisted for decades.

However, the journey toward widespread Bitcoin adoption in Cuba has its challenges. Limited internet access poses a significant hurdle, hindering the ability of many Cubans to fully participate in the digital economy. Regulatory ambiguity also looms as a potential impediment.

Yet, the potential benefits for the Cuban people are nothing short of transformational. Bitcoin empowers individuals to take control of their wealth and participate in the global economy on their own terms. It represents an opportunity for financial inclusion, economic self-determination, and the pursuit of brighter economic horizons. 

As we witness the early stages of Bitcoin's journey within Cuba, it's clear that this digital currency has the power to reshape the nation's economic destiny. It offers a glimmer of hope amid adversity, a lifeline for those seeking financial stability, and a symbol of resilience for a country with a rich history of overcoming challenges. 

In closing, let us remain hopeful and watchful as Cuba navigates this transformative path. With each Bitcoin transaction and each step towards financial independence, the Cuban people inch closer to a future where economic prosperity knows no bounds.



About: Prince Ibenne. (Nigeria) Prince is passionate about helping people understand the crypto-verse through his easily digestible articles. He is an enthusiastic supporter of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.







Tim Moseley

BRICS Alliance Expanding Sets A Challenge For The World Reserve Currency Crypto In Good Stead

BRICS Alliance Expanding Sets A Challenge For The World Reserve Currency. Crypto In Good Stead 

In August 2023, the BRICS countries had their annual summit in South Africa, where some expected a new reserve currency to be unveiled backed by commodities, primarily gold. However, this was not on the agenda for this meeting. The BRICS revealed something arguably more significant when they invited six essential countries to join the coalition. This is in addition to the dozen other countries that have applied to join the BRICS. 

This article explains the BRICS alliance, including how it got started, why it’s more potent than people think, how it could challenge the US dollar as the reserve currency, and how crypto fits into this picture in the next ten years. 

Russian President Vladimir Putin delivers his remarks virtually at the 2023 BRICS 
Summit in Johannesburg on August 24. Source: CNN

The BRICS Background

BRICS is an acronym for Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The term was coined in 2001 by Jim O'Neill, the former chairman of Goldman Sachs’ asset management division. Back then, the acronym was BRIC; South Africa wasn't part of the original lineup. Naturally, Jim was interested in the BRIC countries because he believed that they would be the fastest-growing economies of the coming decades and the most significant economies by 2050.

Jim believed this would be due to their low labor costs, rapidly growing populations, and abundant natural resources. Today, this prediction seems crazy to many, but back then, it made perfect sense to most. For context, many of these countries had started joining US-affiliated organizations at the time, notably China, joining the World Trade Organization. Note that the Commodity markets were also booming, which is significant.

In a 2012 interview, Jim revealed that the performance of the BRICS countries had exceeded his expectations. By then, it was the BRICS because South Africa had joined in 2010. Jim had predicted that the BRICS would account for 14% of global GDP by 2010. They ended up accounting for over 18%. By then, Goldman Sachs had introduced a BRICS investment fund that had accumulated almost $1 billion in assets under management, which was a lot back then. 

Wall Street was exceptionally bullish on the  BRICS, but this sentiment had turned bearish by 2014. This shift in sentiment has been due to two factors. The first was that Xi Jinping became the president of China in 2013. Xi immediately began embarking on various initiatives that were more in the interests of China and less in the interests of the United States, such as the Belt and Road Initiative. 

The Belt and Road initiative marked the end of the so-called age of debt, wherein the West benefited from Eastern countries' purchasing debt. Instead of buying Western debt, China started building global infrastructure. It's possible, if not likely, that Wall Street giants, like Goldman Sachs, were pressured by the US government to stop investing as heavily in the  BRICS because of China going rogue. 

The other factor that caused Wall Street sentiment on the  BRICS to flip was that commodity prices collapsed in 2014, primarily oil. This was caused by an oversupply of oil coming from the United States. US oil producers had discovered new reserves in Texas a few years earlier. You may recall the subsequent decline in oil prices decimated Nigeria’s economy. The same was true for other commodity-reliant economies in the global South. By 2015, the BRICS narrative was as good as gone, and all the BRICS-related funds on Wall Street had closed or consolidated. 

In a recent interview regarding the most recent BRICS conference, Jim O'Neill revealed that China was the only BRICS country that had continued to grow according to his expectations. Jim said that the growth in the other BRICS countries was disappointing and said the same about BRICS’s evolution as an organization. In retrospect, he said it made no sense that South Africa was added and that it made no sense that all the countries under consideration by the BRICS also had weak economies. But that is just the US side of the story. 

The BRICS Side Of The Story

The BRICS view on things sounds very different, and what It suggests about the BRICS economies and their evolution is much more nuanced. For starters, the BRICS technically isn't an official organization. It has yet to have an official website or social media. The current website for The BRICS appears to be run by Russians. 

Russia was the one that turned the acronym into an actual thing driven by President Vladimir Putin. At a United Nations meeting in 2006, the Foreign Ministers of the BRICS countries gathered for their first informal meeting. However, it wasn't until 2009 that the BRICS countries held their first formal meeting in Russia. Interestingly, it's possible that the 2008 financial crisis was the catalyst that brought the BRICS together. 

For reference, it's believed that 2008 shook global confidence in the US-led system. In 2012, things started to get truly interesting for the BRICS. The countries collectively pledged to give $75 billion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in exchange for reforms. Note that the IMF is an international organization closely affiliated with the US that gives USD loans to developing countries, and these loans come with unfavorable conditions; hence, the BRICS wanted reforms.

NEW DEVELOPMENT BANK – The headquarters of the BRICS-founded New 
Development Bank is in Shanghai. Source: DN Africa

Not surprisingly, the BRICS didn't get these reforms. The result was India proposing that the BRICS set up its versions of the IMF and the World Bank, another international organization closely affiliated with the US that issues USD loans to developing countries for infrastructure development. So, in 2014, BRICS countries created the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) and the New Development Bank, colloquially called the BRICS Development Bank.  

Whereas the CRA is just a framework, the BRICS Development Bank is an official organization headquartered in China. BRICS countries have an almost equal stake in both. The framework includes a capital contribution of $100 billion, primarily meant for a payment emergency in a member country.

It’s understood that the bank can issue up to $100 billion of loans for infrastructure development. This is significant because the IMF and the World Bank were the international organizations that set the stage for the US-led world order. Both were created at the famous Bretton Woods conference in 1944, where the US dollar was established as the world's reserve currency. 

Image source: DN Africa

In the following decades, other international organizations closely affiliated with the US were established, such as the United Nations (UN), and many countries were corralled into these organizations by the IMF and the World Bank. This was done using those conditions mentioned earlier on loans, which favor US policy. 

The BRICS are in a different position than the US was in the 1940s. The majority don’t believe that the Chinese Yuan, the Russian Ruble, the Indian Rupee, or a combination of these currencies will become the world's reserve currency. However, the BRICS wants to compete with other US-affiliated international organizations like the UN. The CRA and the BRICS Development Bank are precursors to this, but if the BRICS genuinely want to compete first, they must become an official organization. 

The BRICS Shows The World Its Serious

This ties into the BRICS' most recent Summit in South Africa, where Xi Jinping was physically in attendance. It’s significant because Xi has only left the Chinese mainland once since January 2020. Not only that, but Xi was there when the Chinese economy was reportedly on the brink of collapse, suggesting that the BRICS is even more important than China to Xi. 

Regardless, Xi’s presence was significant, and it begs the question of why he made the effort. The answer seems to be that Xi wanted to show the world that the BRICS is serious, notably to the countries that the BRICS invited to join their coalition. These countries are Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Egypt, Ethiopia and Argentina. All six countries will join the BRICS starting January 2024 if they accept the invitation. 

These new countries are significant for many reasons. The main one is that they are all major oil or agriculture producers. Saudi, UAE, Iran, And Egypt are the major oil producers, while Ethiopia and Argentina are the primary agricultural nations. 

As a fun fact, Argentina is the most self-sufficient country in the world. It's estimated that it could feed its entire population with just a fraction of its resources. It's a shame that inflation is ruining everything. They also aren't being helped by the IMF, which recently forced the Argentine government to curb crypto adoption. 

The Chinese President Xi Jinping addressed the BRICS summit in Johannesburg. 
Source: The Guardian

There are other reasons why these countries are significant. In Saudi Arabia's case, it's because it has supported the so-called Petrodollar system since 1974. For those unfamiliar, the Petrodollar system ensures that all oil is bought and sold using US dollars. More recently, Saudi Arabia is reportedly looking into de-dollarization from the Petrodollar. This is evident in its experimentation with accepting payment for oil in other currencies, namely the Chinese Yuan. Oddly enough, every country trying to move away from the US dollar has been in conflict. 

On that note, Iran is significant because it's been heavily sanctioned by the United States due to its alleged involvement in terrorist activity. Therefore, Iran's admission to the BRICS could cause geopolitical issues for its other member countries and potentially discourage other prospective applicants. The main likely reason the BRICS has yet to become an official organization is because its members are concerned about pushback from the US. 

India is the outlier as it's been the most hesitant to side with the other BRICS countries on issues like a new currency, yet a dozen other nations have formally applied to join the BRICS over the last year or so. This list includes Algeria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia, Cuba, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Palestine, Senegal, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. 

Over a dozen other countries have expressed interest in joining, too. The BRICS is already bigger than many people think. “The five existing BRICS countries account for almost 31.5% of global GDP compared to 30.7% for the G7.” Furthermore, with 3.14 billion people, BRICS nations account for 41% of the world's population. 

It's believed that BRICS will establish a formal organization once it becomes large enough, and the recent and future additions could do the trick in that respect. If the six invited countries join the BRICS, the bloc will account for almost 40% of world GDP. Also, if the applications from other countries are approved, they will account for more than 50% of the world's population. 

Source: Adobe Stock

Commodity Market Prices Crucial For The Rise Of BRICS 

It could also account for most of the world's commodity exports by that point. The only thing missing in the BRICS’ rise is commodity prices. You'll recall that one of the main reasons Jim was bullish on the BRICS was their abundant resources and high commodity prices. You'll also remember that the BRICS narrative fell apart when commodities crashed. But the other reasons Jim was bullish on the BRICS haven't changed. The labor cost in these countries is still very cheap, and most of their populations continue to grow. When you realize this, adding South Africa and the other countries makes sense; all that's missing is commodity prices. 

Prices follow a cycle that repeats every 20 to 30 years. As the image below indicates, oil prices, agriculture, livestock, and base metals are highly correlated, although they peak and trough at slightly different times. Even so, they follow a trend of 10 to 15 years up and 10 to 15 years down. The last commodity cycle peaked in the early 2010s. This means the next peak could happen as soon as the mid-2030s; however, commodity prices could continue to fall until the mid-2020s. The caveat is that commodity prices will likely vary by type and region, with some rising first and others rising later.

Image source: Visual Capitalist

The BRICS narrative will likely flip back to bullish during the next commodity cycle, not just because they have many natural resources. The profits from extracting resources and turning them into commodities are much higher in current and future BRICS countries. It’s due to many factors, such as developed countries having exhausted the most accessible resources. They also have higher labor costs and fewer people. Developed countries also have more regulations. 

The BRICS countries are at the opposite end of the spectrum for all these factors. If the BRICS Coalition manages to add all the major commodity exporters, it could establish monopolies on the most valuable commodities and force countries to side with the BRICS in exchange for these commodities, the same way that the US has forced countries to side with it in exchange for US Dollars. 

Of course, the US and some of its allies also have lots of natural resources. Again, the difference is that the US and select allies have less accessible resources, higher costs of labor, and more regulations. 

Image source: The Washington Post

The Commodity Monopoly

Investors will see this dynamic and take their money to the BRICS for more significant profit margins. At the same time, US allies, unable to secure most of their resources, such as Europe, will face extreme pressure to buy less expensive commodities from the BRICS. The inevitable result is that the BRICS will have a de facto monopoly on commodities outside of everywhere except North America. This pertains to an essential question that nations worldwide must ask themselves when the next commodity cycle inevitably occurs. Which do they value more, the US dollars used to buy commodities or the commodities themselves? 

Again, the answer will ultimately depend on geography. Countries that produce most of their commodities will likely be the first to ditch the US dollar. Most of the BRICS countries produce their own commodities and have been actively trying to ditch the US dollar in recent years. This is not a coincidence from a commodity perspective. 

Conversely, countries that import most of their commodities will likely continue to value US dollars more if it's commercially viable. The inflation of the US dollar, high commodity prices from US allies, and geopolitical tensions with the BRICS will likely force them to side with the BRICS in the end. Many speculate the EU will be the first to fold. Large European countries, like France, have already hesitated to side with the US regarding China. So, an EU country could break ranks and join the BRICS in the coming years. 

Crypto To The Rescue

So, where could crypto fit into this picture? As the US dollar continues to decline, an alternative currency will rise. The BRICS want a common currency they can use for commodity payments instead of the USD. As mentioned earlier, it's doubtful that any of the BRICS currencies could play this role and even less likely that a combination of BRICS currencies could either. That's because there will be constant disagreement about the composition and governance of these currencies. 

Case in point, BRICS countries apparently couldn't agree on the details of the CRA and the BRICS Development Bank when first proposed, never mind that many of the BRICS countries also have significant geopolitical tensions, such as China and India, over disputed territory. The BRICS countries require a credibly neutral currency, preferably digital, so it's easy to store and transfer across borders. 

Now, as impressive as having a gold-backed currency of some kind would be, it would not be very user-friendly. Believe it or not, the ideal BRICS currency would be Bitcoin’s BTC. That's because BTC is created by proof-of-work mining, which requires lots of commodities for computers. The Bitcoin blockchain is secured by the energy commodities that computers use. Notably, BRICS countries have most of both. 

This makes BTC a credibly mutual currency that the BRICS can collectively control, albeit to a much lesser extent than a fiat currency. In furtherance, BRICS countries must account for most of Bitcoin’s mining power and collectively agree on changes with Bitcoin developers and the community. 

By contrast, if the BRICS adopted a proof-of-stake cryptocurrency, the US could easily print the dollars required to buy up the stake to maintain blockchain control. So long as the US dollar retains its supremacy, it could undermine any proof-of-stake crypto adopted by the BRICS.

Amid Sanctions, Bitcoin Mining Machines Are ‘Flowing’ Into Russia, as Industry Thrives
Image source: CoinDesk

Interestingly, the BRICS have been discussing using crypto for payments since at least 2017. In 2019, BRICS countries discussed creating a unified crypto payment system, with Russia proposing a unified stablecoin less than a year later. Interestingly, this push for the BRICS to adopt crypto comes primarily from Russia. This could be because of Russia's immense development of crypto-related technology. Whatever the reason, Russia seems more open to adopting crypto than ever. Multiple reports have mentioned Russia considering using crypto for international trade and mining its own BTC for these purposes. 

One Russian bank is using crypto for international trade already. Of course, Russia's recent willingness to adopt crypto is reinforced by the unprecedented sanctions imposed on it by the US and its allies after the Ukraine/ Russia war last year. This is a position that Iran was familiar with and probably why Iran is also reportedly using crypto for international trade as of August 2022. 

Incidentally, Iran joining the BRICS in 2024 could be one of the catalysts that opens the door to BTC adoption within the bloc. The fact that central banks worldwide will be allowed to hold up to 2% of their balance sheets in crypto starting in 2025 sets the stage for non-BRICS countries to follow suit, and then Bitcoin will be just a few steps away from becoming the world's next reserve currency. 




Editor and Chief Markethive: Deb Williams. (Australia) I thrive on progress and champion freedom of speech. I embrace "Change" with a passion, and my purpose in life is to enlighten people to accept and move forward with enthusiasm. Find me at my Markethive Profile Page | My Twitter Account | and my LinkedIn Profile.





Tim Moseley